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Introduction

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Radiation Safety Training
Short course at
MSUM
Radiation Safety Officer
Joseph J Provost
Introduction
Radiation and radioactive materials
can be valuable tools in research
пѓ¤ There are 3 labs using radioactive
isotopes at MSUM
пѓ¤ Radioactive materials are used in a
variety of disciplines, ranging from
the biological sciences to physics…
even art!
пѓ¤
Radiation and You
Radiation and radioactive materials are safe if
used properly
пѓ¤ Background radiation is the ionizing radiation
emitted from a variety of natural and artificial
radiation sources
пѓ¤
Your exposure can
never realistically be
zero, because
background radiation is
always present
QuickTimeв„ў and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Decay
пѓ¤
Radiation from
radioactive materials
is the result of
radioactive decay.
An atom with an
unstable nucleus will
“decay” until it
becomes a stable
atom, emitting
radiation as it decays.
QuickTimeв„ў and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Introduction
пѓ¤ Radioactivity comes from the atomic
nucleus, not from the electron cloud.
пѓ¤ Without instruments, radioactivity
cannot be seen, felt, smelled, tasted,
or detected by human beings.
пѓ¤ For this reason, it went undiscovered
until this century.
Where Does It Come From?
Radiation results from an unstable nucleus
e-
e-
e-
eH-3
He-3
This is called radioactive decay
Who found it?
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
1896 Henri Becquerel discovered natural
radiation - Uranium energy captured by
phosphorus and X-Ray film
Marie Curie - student of Henri, determined the
emissions were radiation and found the
radioactive element - Radium and Polonium.
First person to win two Nobel Prizes in two fields
(1903 and 1911) one with HB and one with her
husband
Irene Joliot-Curie - induction of radioactive
material Ni, P and Si (1935 Nobel Prize)
Decay
пѓ¤
For example, the H-3 (also known as tritium)
nucleus consists of one proton and two
neutrons. When undergoing radioactive
decay, one of the tritium neutrons emits an
electron and becomes a proton resulting in
He-3, which has three protons and one
neutron.
e3H
3He
пѓ¤
Sometimes a substance will progress
through several radioactive decays
until it reaches a stable state.
Where Does it
Come From?
Radiation results from
an unstable nucleus
ee-
H-3
He-3
This is called radioactive decay
Nuclear Arithmetic
пѓ¤ Protons
and neutrons are collectively
called nucleons
A
Z
X
where
X = chemical symbol
A = nucleon number (sum of p
and n)
Z = atomic number (# of p)
1. Number of neutrons = A-Z
2. The nucleon number of an isotope is
written as a suffix to the name ex.
Hydrogen - 2
Transmutation
Not all nuclei are radioactive
пѓ¤ OF ALL OF THESE ARE ISOTOPES,
ONLY ONE IS RADIOACTIVE!
пѓ¤
C
12
6
C
13
6
Stable
14
6
C
Radioactive
Stable
Transmutation
пѓ¤
Not all nuclei are radioactive. Some nuclei
are stable while other are radioactive; those
that are radioactive are sometimes referred
to as RADIOISOTOPES.
C
12
6
C
13
6
Stable
C
14
6
Radioactive
Stable
Radioactive Decay
Radioactive decay is
a random event
пѓ¤ Half life is the time it
takes for half of the
nuclei is a substance
to undergo
radioactive decay
пѓ¤
long half life
short half life
Time
Half Life
пѓ¤
QuickTimeв„ў and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Radioactive decay
occurs randomly,
that is, it is not
known when
individual atoms will undergo decay.
However, although the decay of
individual atoms is random, a
radioactive substance, consisting of
many atoms, will decay according to
a known pattern.
пѓ¤A
property often used to describe
a radioactive substance is known
as the half-life.
пѓ¤ The half life is the time it takes for
half of the unstable nuclei in the
radioactive substance to
undergo radioactive decay.
For example, the half-life of
P-32 is 14.3 days.
If you start with 100 microcuries(the unit
of the microcurie will be explained later)
of P-32 , after 14.3 days there would be
50 microcuries left.
пѓ¤ After another 14.3 days there would be
25 microcuries left.
пѓ¤ After 10 half-lives, only about 1/1000th
(actually 1/210, which is 1/1024) of the
original will be left.
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
There is a wide range of half-lives for
isotopes;The half-life of P-32 is only
14.3 days whereas the half-life of C14 is 5730 years
Radioactive decay Equation
Activity(A):number of nuclei (N) that
decay per unit of time
A
A(t) = dN/dt = -lN(t)
initial activity
-lt
A(t) = AOe
l is called the decay
constant
# of undecayed nuclei (N)
пѓ¤
O
time(t)
Half-life & the Decay Constant
Half-life (t1/2) is related
A
to the constant
according to this
equation:
1/2 A
t1/2= (ln 2)/l
O
Activity
пѓ¤
O
1/2 AO
t1/2
t1/2
Time
Radioactive Emissions
пѓ¤Alpha particles
пѓ¤Beta particles
Radioactive Emissions
пѓ¤Alpha particles contain two protons
and two neutrons (a helium nucleus).
They have an atomic number of 2.
Properties-Alpha Particles
consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons
пѓ¤ have +2 charge
пѓ¤ can only travel up to a few centimeters in
air
пѓ¤ are stopped by the protective layer of your
skin
+2
пѓ¤
Alpha emitters
We do not currently use isotopes
which emit alpha particles
пѓ¤ Generally these are elements which
are very heavy
пѓ¤
пѓ¤ Atomic
Number greater than 83
пѓ¤ Thorium, radon and so on.
Radioactive Emissions
пѓ¤Alpha particles contain two protons
and two neutrons (a helium nucleus).
They have an atomic number of 2.
пѓ¤Beta particles
Radioactive Emissions
пѓ¤Alpha particles contain two protons
and two neutrons (a helium nucleus).
They have an atomic number of 2.
пѓ¤Beta particles are simply electrons.
Beta radiation is a stream of electrons.
Properties - Beta Particles
b+
b+
Beta particles:
пѓ¤ are either an electron (-1 charge) or positron
(+1 charge)
пѓ¤ travel about 12 feet per MeV in air
пѓ¤ Higher energy betas should be shielded with
low Z materials such as Plexiglas/Lucite or
wood
пѓ¤
b-
Typical beta isotopes
пѓ¤
We use several Гџ emitters at MSU. These
can be classified as low or high energy
particles
E n erg y
Isotop e
3
H
M eV
1 /2 L if e
0 .0 18
1 2.3 y ea rs
14
C
0 .1 55
5 57 0 y ears
32
P
1 .7 1
1 4.2 d ay s
33
P
0 .2 15
2 5 D a ys
35
S
0 .1 67
8 7.1 d ay s
Radioactive Emissions
пѓ¤Gamma rays
пѓ¤Positron emission
Radioactive Emissions
пѓ¤Gamma rays are a high energy form of
electromagnetic radiation. They are similar
to light waves but have shorter wavelengths
and are more energetic.
пѓ¤Positron emission
Properties - Gamma Rays
Gamma rays:
пѓ¤ are photons that originate from the nucleus
of the atom
пѓ¤ do not carry a charge
пѓ¤ can cause ionization when they interact
пѓ¤ should be shielded with high Z materials,
such as lead, if appropriate
Some possible gamma emitters
пѓ¤ 22Na
пѓ¤ 36Cl
пѓ¤ 125I
пѓ¤ 131 I
Radioactive Emissions
пѓ¤Gamma rays are a high energy form of
electromagnetic radiation. They are similar
to light waves but have shorter wavelengths
and are more energetic.
пѓ¤Positron emission equal in mass to beta
particles but opposite in charge
Radiation particles
Properties - Characteristic X-rays
пѓ¤
Characteristic X-rays are generated when
electrons fall from higher energy to lower
energy electron shells
+
+
ee-
ee-
ee-
X
Properties - Bremsstrahlung
X-rays
пѓ¤
Bremsstrahlung X-rays are created when
electrons are slowed down in the field of a
nucleus
e-
+
X
e-
Penetrating Power
The penetrating power of radiation varies in part
due to their masses and their charges
пѓ¤ Protection from radiation - distance and shielding
пѓ¤
Penetrating Power
Alpha - outside of body little damage, not able to
penetrate skin. Inside of the body causes much
damage to tissues cells DNA and Proteins
пѓ¤ Beta - some harm but much less than alpha can go
through skin
пѓ¤ Gamma - is the most
harmful easily penetrates
skin and damages DNA
and Cells as it “rips”
through
пѓ¤
Exposure
Elements tend to
concentrate in
certain parts of
the body
пѓ¤ I - Thyroid
пѓ¤ S - Skin
пѓ¤ P - Bone
пѓ¤ H - Throughout
пѓ¤
Radiation Units
пѓ¤
There are specific units for the amount of
radiation you receive in a given time and for
the total amount of exposure you are
subjected to.
Measuring radioactivity rates What Is a Curie?
This is the amount of radioactivity in a sample
(the amount of radioactivity = activity)
пѓ¤ A commonly-used unit for measuring activity is
the curie(Ci)
пѓ¤ 1 curie is equal to 2.2 x 1012 disintegrations per
minute (dpm)
пѓ¤ Typical activities found in a university lab are in
the microcurie (mCi) to millicurie (mCi) range
Measuring radioactivity ratesWhat is a Becquerel (Bq)
The amount of radioactive material which
decays at a rate of one disintegratration per
second (dps)
пѓ¤ This is the SI unit of radioactive material or
activity
пѓ¤
CPM & DPM
CPM is the counts per minute that a detector
“sees”
пѓ¤ DPM are the actual disintegrations (release of
energy) by a radioactive sample [disintegrations
per minute]
Since detectors aren’t 100% efficient...
пѓ¤
DPM = CPM / Detector Efficiency
(the detector efficiency for the specific
radioisotope, that is)
Radiation Dose vs Rate
Dose is the amount of radiation you were actually
exposed to:
пѓ¤ Roentogen - This can only be used to describe an
amount of gamma and X-rays, and only in air. One
roentgen is equal to depositing in dry air enough
energy to cause 2.58E-4 coulombs per kg. It is a
measure of the ionizations of the molecules in a
mass of air. (NOT a or b particles)
What is a REM?
REM - The most common used unit for
measuring radiation dose in people is the rem
пѓ¤ REM = Roentgen equivalent for man, a
roentgen (an international unit of X- or
gamma-radiation) adjusted for the atomic
makeup of the human body
пѓ¤ Since the rem is a relatively large unit, it is
more common to use the millirem (mrem),
which is 1/1000th of a rem
пѓ¤
Rem is a Dose equilavent
The Dose equivalent is the product of the absorbed
dose in tissue times a quality factor
пѓ¤ This relates the absorbed dose in human tissue to
the effective biological damage of the radiation.
пѓ¤ Not all radiation has the same biological effect,
even for the same amount of absorbed dose.
Rem = Quality factor x dose in rads
пѓ¤ Sievert is the SI unit of dose equivalent
Quality factors
X and gamma rays
Beta particles
Thermal Neutrons
Fast Neutrons
Protons
Alpha particles
1
1
2
10
10
20
Other “Dose” Units
Rad (Radiation Absorbed Dose)- this is the
amount of exposure to any type of material
from any type of radiation measured in
Joules/kg tissue
пѓ¤ The Gray is the absorbed dose that
corresponds to the transfer of 1 joule to 1 kg
of material (SI unit). Does not relate to
biological effects.
пѓ¤
“Background” Radiation
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
Natural sources = 300 mrem
Medical = 53 m
Occupational = 0.9 mrem
Nuclear Fuel = 0.05 mrem
Consumer products = 5-13 mrem
From NCRP Report 93
Misc. environmental = 0.06 mrem
Occupational Radiation Exposure
Limits
Whole body = 5,000 mrem/year
пѓ¤ Extremities = 50,000 mrem/year
пѓ¤ Eye = 15,000 mrem/year
пѓ¤ Fetus = 500 mrem/gestation period
(declared pregnancy)
пѓ¤ Minors = 500 mrem/year
пѓ¤ Rad workers = 100 mrem/year over
background
пѓ¤
Review
Rate - of disintegration Dose - amount of radiation
exposed
пѓ¤ DPM
Curie
пѓ¤ Becquerel (SI)
пѓ¤ NOT CPM
пѓ¤
Roentogen
пѓ¤ Rad
пѓ¤ Gray (SI)
пѓ¤ REM (equivalent)
пѓ¤ Sievert (SI equivalent)
пѓ¤
Declared Pregnant Woman
A woman who has
voluntarily informed the
Radiation Safety Section in
writing of her pregnancy
and estimated date of
conception
Relative Risk -A Comparison
A c tio n
M in . life
e x p e c ta n c y lo s t
b u y in g a s m a ll c a r
7000
c o a s t to c o a s t d riv e
1000
s m o k in g a c ig a re tte
10
1 m re m o f ra d ia tio n
1 .5
Examples of relative risk adapted from Cohen and Lee,
“A Catalogue of Risks,” Health Physics, vol. 36, June 1979.
Reduction in life span
Activity
Living in a city Vs country
Single Vs. Married
Male Vs female
Radiation
Cosmic
Medical
Terrestrial
World fallout
Avg. Reduction
5 years
5 years
3 years
25 days
30 days
50 - 100 days
1 day
Biological effects
Two types stochastic and non-stochastic
Stochastic effects
пѓ¤ Stochastic effects are associated with long-term, low-level (chronic)
exposure to radiation. ("Stochastic" refers to the likelihood that
something will happen.)
пѓ¤ Increased levels of exposure make these health effects more likely
to occur, but do not influence the type or severity of the effect.
пѓ¤ The severity of the ultimate effect is not linked to the amount of the
dose
пѓ¤ There is NO threshold for the effects to be observed - Rad safety
assumes no safe amount.
Somatic, “Prompt” Effects
Acute Dose (rem) Syndrome
1 - 25
No detectable effects
25 - 100
Slight sickness RBCs drop
100-1000
Hemopoietic
1000-5000
Gastointestinal
5000-10000
Central Nervous System
Gamma Radiation
Absorbed Dose
100 rad
100 - 200 rad
200 - 450 rad
500 - 600 rad
900 - 1200 rad
Survival Probability
Virtually certain
Probable
Probable
Almost impossible
Possible in some cases
with bone marrow t-plant
Non-stochastic effects
Severity of the result is related to the dose
(usually high dose).
пѓ¤ Adverse effect happens soon after exposure
and can be directly linked to exposure
пѓ¤ Generally related to a large dose over a
short time
пѓ¤ There is a threshold level - observed effects
follow typical distribution around a dose
пѓ¤
Cancer Risks
Excess Cancer Deaths after Acute, one-time
exposure to 10 rem per 100,000 People (BEIR V)
Adult Leukemia
95
Cancer of digestive system
230
Cancer of Respiratory System
170
Leukemia risk (without excess 10 rem) was
685 excess deaths per 100,000 people
(1980 Vital Statistics of the U.S.)
Teratogenic Effects
Another class of biological effects of concern are called
the teratogenic effects.
Teratogenic
effects are effects
which occur in
offspring as a
result of exposure
to a hazard while
in-utero
QuickTimeв„ў and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTim eв„ў and a
TIFF (Un co m press ed ) de com pres so r
are n eed ed to se e this p ictu re .
Maternal Factors & Pregnancy
M a te rn a l F a c to r
P re g n a n c y O u tc o m e
O c c u rre n c e
S m o k in g
< 1 p a ck/d a y
> 1 p a ck/d a y
B a b ie s w e ig h 5 -9 o z le ss th a n a vg
In fa n t d e a th
In fa n t d e a th
1 in 5
1 in 3
A lc o h o l
2 d rin ks/d a y
2 -4 d rin ks/d a y
> 4 d rin ks/d a y
C h ro n ic a lco h o lism
B a b ie s w e ig h 2 -6 o z le ss th a n a vg
F e ta l a lco h o l syn d ro m e
F e ta l a lco h o l syn d ro m e
F e ta l a lco h o l syn d ro m e
1 in 1 0
1 in 3
1 in 3 to 1 in 2
R a d ia tio n
1 re m
1 re m
C h ild h o o d le u ke m ia d e a th s b e fo re 1 2 yrs
O th e r ch ild h o o d ca n ce r d e a th s
1 in 3 3 3 3
1 in 3 5 7 1
Occupational Dose
Annual Limits For Workers
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
Whole body(active blood forming organs) 5 REM
Eyes - 15 REM ; Extremities - 50 REM
Minors (10% of adult limits)
Embryo/Fetus - 0.5 REM over the entire
pregnancy.
Annual Limits For General Public
пѓ¤
Total Effective Dose Equivalent < 0.1 REM
ALARA
As
Low
As
Reasonably
Achievable
MSUM is committed to
keeping radiation
exposures to
personnel ALARA
ALARA
Education - Ensure proper training and
use reduces unnecessary exposure
Dose - The lower the dose the better, but
all within reason
Reasonable - is determined on a case by
case basis with the PI and RSO
Protection - Use proper shielding and
reduce time of exposure
Radiation Protection
The three principles of radiation protection:
Time
Distance
Shielding
Time
Decreasing the time spent near a radiation
source decreases radiation exposure
Distance
Increasing the distance from a radiation source
decreases radiation exposure
Shielding
Increasing the shielding of a radiation
source decreases radiation exposure
shield
Shielding Beta Emitters
H-3, C-14, S-35 do not require shielding for
the quantities typically in use.
пѓ¤ Higher energy beta-emitters, such as P-32,
may need to be shielded
пѓ¤ Shield with low Z materials, such as
Plexiglas or wood
пѓ¤ Do NOT shield with high Z materials, such
as lead- you can actually generate additional
radiation in the form of x-rays!
пѓ¤
Shielding Gamma Emitters
Lead Shielding is not required for most
quantities of gamma emitters in use, such as
I-125 or Cr-51
пѓ¤ If lead shielding is used, be careful not to
contaminate it with long-lived radioisotopes
пѓ¤
Protective Clothing
Gloves
пѓ¤ Lab Coat
пѓ¤ Eyewear
пѓ¤ Closed toe footwear
пѓ¤
Contamination Control
Watch out where you put your “hot” little
hands during an experiment
пѓ¤ Monitor yourself and your work area
frequently for radioactivity
пѓ¤ Make sure to wash your hands after
finishing an experiment
пѓ¤
Avoid Ingesting Radioactive
Material
Don’t bring hands or objects to your mouth
when performing an experiment
пѓ¤ Eating, drinking, smoking, and applying
cosmetics are strictly forbidden in
radioisotope use areas
пѓ¤ Never mouth pipette
 Food doesn’t belong in a refrigerator which
stores radioactive materials
пѓ¤
Avoid inhaling radioactive
material
Make sure that you
have proper
ventilation for your
experiment
пѓ¤ When using volatile
materials, use a
fume hood which
has been certified
пѓ¤
Radioactive Signs & Labels
* Radioisotopes use
areas should be
clearly marked
* Use warning signs/
labels on
- work areas
- rad waste containers
- sinks
- refrigerators
- equipment
Using H-3 (Tritium)
Betas from H-3 are stopped by the
protective layer of your skin- shielding is
not needed for quantities typically in use at
MSUM
 H-3 tends to “creep” - do not store tritiated
water in refrigerators or freezers without
keeping in a sealed container
пѓ¤ Can not detect by Geiger counter - must use
a wipe test.
пѓ¤
Using C-14 & S-35
Shielding is not needed for quantities
typically in use at MSUM
 “Spot checks” for contamination can be
performed using direct monitoring, but
contamination surveys must be performed
using a “swipe” survey
пѓ¤ These isotopes can not be detected by
Geiger counter.
пѓ¤
Using P-32
If shielding is needed, use a low Z material
such as wood or Plexiglas
пѓ¤ Do NOT use lead shielding- x-rays can be
generated
пѓ¤ Geiger counter or wipe test will measure
this isotope.
пѓ¤
Using Carrier-free I-125
Perform iodination as quickly as possible in
a certified fume hood
пѓ¤ Reduce (iodine to iodide) all fractions,
liquid waste and equipment used ASAP
пѓ¤ Store unused portions and items which
cannot be reduced inside a sealed bag with
activated charcoal in a fume hood
пѓ¤ Geiger counters will detect this isotope
пѓ¤
General Spill Procedures
When cleaning up a spill, place absorbent
material around the edges of the spill and
clean from the outside edges of the spill
towards the center to avoid spreading
contamination
пѓ¤ Place materials used to clean the spill into the
appropriate radioactive waste containers
пѓ¤ The Radiation Safety Officer can provide
advice to lab personnel regarding
decontamination procedures
пѓ¤
Minor Radioactive Spills
A minor spill is one that involves small
quantities/activities/energies of radioactive
material confined to a relatively localized
area
пѓ¤ Most spills that occur in the lab are minor,
and should be cleaned up by lab personnel
ASAP
пѓ¤ You do not need to inform the Radiation
Safety Officer in the event of a minor spill
пѓ¤
Intermediate Spills
An intermediate spill may involve larger
amounts of radioactive material spread over
a greater area
пѓ¤ Intermediate spills can also involve small
amounts of more hazardous radioactive
materials, e.g., higher energy emitters
пѓ¤
Intermediate Spills- What to Do
Confine contamination with absorbent
materials
пѓ¤ Check yourself for contamination before
leaving area; remove contaminated clothing
and shoes.
пѓ¤ Restrict access to the spill area
пѓ¤ If the spill involves a volatile material,
increase ventilation; if it is a dry spill,
decrease ventilation
пѓ¤
Intermediate Spills- What to Do
(cont..)
If contamination is widespread outside the
lab, it may be necessary to contact campus
police to assist with traffic control
пѓ¤ Contact the Radiation Safety Officer
(5085/4323) to report the spill
пѓ¤ Do not attempt decontamination unless the
situation threatens to become much worse
пѓ¤
High Level Spills
Protecting personnel is the FIRST priority
пѓ¤ If high level exposures or airborne
contamination are possible:
- evacuate area immediately
- rid yourself of contamination
- keep others out of area
пѓ¤
And Another Thing About Spills…
You will not be penalized for reporting
a spill, but on the other hand….
Radiation Survey Requirements
When should Surveys be conducted?пѓ¤ Whenever radioactive materials are present in
the lab, contamination surveys MUST be
performed and documented at least once a
week.
пѓ¤ The area you are working with must be
surveyed before finishing for the day.
пѓ¤ If no experiments are being conducted, it is
permissible to halt tests until starting again.
Contamination Surveys
Direct monitoring with a Geiger counter can be
performed when using P-32 and other high
energy beta emitters
 “Swipe” surveys must be performed for low
energy beta emitters (e.g., H-3, C-14, S-35) and
must be counted in a liquid scintillation counter
or equivalent instrument
пѓ¤ Direct monitoring with a low energy gamma
probe (NaI) can be performed when using
gamma emitters such as I-125
пѓ¤
General Survey Information
Randomly survey selected areas outside of
normal radioisotope use areas at least once a
month
пѓ¤ Using a map of your lab can make
documenting surveyed areas easier
пѓ¤ Look for levels twice as large as the
background
пѓ¤ Check for contamination wherever human
hands normally go...
пѓ¤
10 Most Often Contaminated
Sites
10.
9.
8.
7.
6.
Soap/towel
dispenser
Microwave oven
Radio dials
Phones
Pens/pencils
1.
5.
4.
3.
2.
Chairs
Drawer
handles
Refrigerator
handles
Lab books
Geiger counters
Documenting Surveys
Contamination surveys must be documented
пѓ¤ Record the following:
- date performed
- area(s) surveyed ( a map helps!)
- results
- identity of surveyor
- instrument used
- action taken is contamination is found
пѓ¤
Wi pe Te st A na ly sis
Dat e __________________________________
_____________________________________
Name -
Wi p e s w ill b e take n o n c e e a c h w e ek i n th e d e sig n at e d a re as ( se e at ta c h ed map ) of
Sc ie nc e Lab 222 , e xc e pt d ur in g w ee k s in w h ic h n o rad io isotopes ar e u sed n or was te
h a n d lin g/d isposa l is co n d ucted . DP M w ill b e d e te rm in ed us in g the Beckma n LS 3801 l iqu id
sc in tillat io n cou n te r. Cou n ts w ill b e don e u sin g the appropr ia te c h an ne l(s) for the
isotop e (s) w h ic h was (w e re ) u se d d ur in g th at w ee k; co u n ts w ill b e co n d uc te d a m in imum
of 5 m in ut e s/cou n t. Wi pes w ill b e take n w ith wat e r mo ist e n e d filte r pa p e r or cotto n swabs ,
w ip in g a 100 cm 2 ar e a , a n d p laced i n a v ia l w ith a n appropr iat e vo lum e of wat e r-so lub le
liqu id sc in tillat io n cockt a il (5 .0 m l for t he sma ll v ia ls). Wi p e resu lts of gr e at e r t h a n 3X
backgrou n d c o u n ts w ill in d icat e th e n ee d for re -was h in g a n d re -a ssessme n t of the a re a .
A n y add itio n al a re as (b a se d o n u se ) w ill a lso b e w ip e d. Add itio n al w ip e s w ill b e m a rk e d
o n t he map w ith a numb e r in d icat i n g the ar e a and the re sult i n g cou n ts in c luded belo w .
If add itio n al w ip e s a re n e e d e d , S imply re -n um b e r thi s form for your nee d s a n d n ot the
act iv it y a n d re as o n o n a n at t a ch e d page . All counts are to be stored in the log.
A vg B a c k g rou n d Cou n ts :______ ____
Ar e a
DPM
Ar e a
DPM
Ar e a
1
21
41
2
22
42
3
23
43
4
24
44
5
25
45
6
26
46
7
27
47
8
28
48
9
29
49
10
30
50
11
31
51
12
32
52
13
33
53
14
34
54
15
35
55
16
36
56
17
37
57
18
38
58
DPM
Step-by-step Guide to Direct
Monitoring - Before You Start
1 Don protective
equipment (e.g. gloves)
пѓ¤ 2 Check your Geiger
counter:
- battery test
- note background
radiation level
- turn on speaker
- check probe with
check source
пѓ¤
Step-by-step Guide to Direct
Monitoring, How-to
3 Switch Geiger counter to lowest
multiplier, usually X1
пѓ¤ 4 Hold probe window 1 cm from the surface
you are surveying
пѓ¤ 5 Move probe over surface at a rate of about
1 cm/second
пѓ¤ 6 If surveying for alpha or beta
contamination, do not cover probe with
parafilm or plastic wrap
пѓ¤
Step-by-step Guide to Swipe
Surveys- General Tips
Change gloves frequently
пѓ¤ Avoid cross-contaminating samples
пѓ¤ Use filter paper or cotton swabs
пѓ¤
Step-by-step Guide to Swipe
Surveys, How-to
1. Don protective equipment (e.g., gloves)
пѓ¤ 2. Lightly moisten swipe with alcohol or
water
 3. Using uniform pressure, “swipe” an area
about 100-200 cm2 (survey a discrete area
so that if contamination is found the area
will be easier to identify)
пѓ¤
Radioactive Material Delivery
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
Deliveries are generally performed every weekday
afternoon except for University holidays
All packages are delivered the same day that they are
received; we will not hold a package unless absolutely
necessary
If you did not receive a package you were expecting,
contact your business office, the vendor and the carrier
before calling the Radiation Safety Officer
Receipt of Radioactive Materials
Open containers with volatile, gaseous or readily
dispersible materials in a fume hood
пѓ¤ When you receive your shipment, check the
inner container for leakage- a simple swipe test is
sufficient
пѓ¤ If there is a problem with the shipment, notify the
Radiation Safety Officer immediately
пѓ¤ Remember to document the receipt if radioactive
material in your lab’s records
пѓ¤
Personnel Monitoring
пѓ¤
Personnel monitoring
devices are assigned at the
discretion of the Radiation
Safety Officer in
accordance with all
applicable rules and
regulation
The Care and Feeding of Your
Dosimeter
Always:
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
make available for
exchange on the
appropriate exchange
date
report contamination
of dosimetry
store away from
radioactive sources
Never:
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
share dosimetry
remove film from
holder
expose to heat
take off campus
intentionally expose to
radiation
Wearing Dosimeters
Whole Body
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
wear between neckline
and waist unless
otherwise instructed
wear with name on
badge facing outwards
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
Extremity
the label side of the
ring should usually
face the palm
wear gloves over ring,
if possible
Missing Dosimeters
пѓ¤
If you lose, damage or fail to make
dosimeters available for exchange you will
be required to provide a detailed description
of all radioactive sources in use during the
wear period
Storage of Radioactive Waste
Each radioactive waste container must have a
“Caution Radioactive Materials” sign/label
Radioactive waste containers must be stored in a
controlled area
Radioactive Waste Types
Solid
Liquid
Sharps
Carcass
Solid Radioactive Waste
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
Segregate waste into three categories:
пѓ¤ glass and plastic that cannot be decontaminated
easily
пѓ¤ paper, gloves, etc.
пѓ¤ short-lived waste (T1/2 < 90 days) to be held for
decay
Line containers with clear plastic bags at least 4
mils thick
Do not put liquids into the solid waste
Liquid Waste
Organic
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
store in 1 - 5 gal
plastic carboys with
outer containment
filter out solids (use 60
mesh screen)
pH must be adjusted to
between 6.8 and 8.0
Aqueous
пѓ¤
low activity waste can
be disposed into the
sanitary sewer system
in specific amounts
and/or concentrations
with prior approval
from the Radiation
Safety Officer only
Radioactive “Sharps”
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
radioactive sharps are items such
as Pasteur pipettes, syringes and
hypodermic needles
most glass items (test tubes,
vials, etc.) can be
decontaminated and should not
be disposed of as radioactive
sharps
Radioactive Carcasses
Prior arrangements must be made with the
Radiation Safety Officer for disposal of
radioactive carcasses
User Definitions
Principle Investigator - Tenure Track MSUM
Faculty. Approved by Radiation Safety
Committee
Workers - Those staff or research students,
who are using radioactive materials under the
supervision of a principle investigator
User Responsibility
Principle Investigator -Ensure that all procedures are
authorized and followed.
- Ensure surveys are conducted and reported
-Monitor use and disposal of isotopes
-Ensure their workers are trained
Workers - Must be trained and pass short course test
-Must practice ALARA and monitor use
-Conduct surveys and report spills or contamination
SL 222 Access
Principle Investigator - Has full access to side
rooms and main room keys
Workers - May only have access to outside
doors of SL222 after passing test. Can not
have full access to side rooms. Must get
those keys from PI.
MSUM Radiation Safety Manual
The MSUM Radiation Safety
Manual contains information
that all users of radiation
sources at MSUM should know
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
Permission to use
Worker and PI responsibilities
Health Definitions
Forms in the handbook and on the web
web.mnstate.edu/provost/radsafe.html
MSUM Radiation Authorization
Now What?
Rad Safe Test - take on your own
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
You must take the MSUM Rad Safe test and
pass with a score of 75%
The test is found on-line.
Sign and agree to info on the test form
Complete forms 1 and 2 (also found online)
Turn forms and test to Dr Provost
Orientation - you must make appt
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
пѓ¤
Conducted by RSO (Dr. Provost)
Tour / review of site and storage
Answer questions on use and procedures
Wipe test/Survey review
Key control / access privilege
Web site & Handbook review
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