close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

SiPM - GSI

код для вставкиСкачать
CBM Meeting
ITEP 05.11.04
SiPM for CBM
Michael Danilov
ITEP(Moscow)
Muon Detector and/or Preshower
SiPM main characteristics
42пЃ­m
20пЃ­m
pixel
hпЃ®
Resistor
Rn=400
kпЃ—
Al
Depletion
Region
2 пЃ­m
R 50пЃ—
Substrate
Ubias
пѓ�Pixel size ~20-30пЃ­m
пѓ�
Electrical inter-pixel cross-talk minimized by:
- decoupling quenching resistor for each pixel
- boundaries between pixels to decouple them
пѓЁ reduction of sensitive area
and geometrical efficiency
• Optical inter-pixel cross -talk:
-due to photons from Geiger discharge initiated
by one electron and collected on adjacent pixel
пѓ�Working point: VBias = Vbreakdown + DV ~ 50-60 V
DV ~ 3V above breakdown voltage
Each pixel behaves as a Geiger counter with
Qpixel = DV Cpixel
with Cpixel~50fmF пѓЁ Qpixel~150fmC=106e
Dynamic range ~ number of pixels (1024)
пѓЁ saturation
SiPM Spectral Efficiency
Depletion region is very small ~ 2пЃ­m
пѓЁstrong electric field (2-3) 105 V/cm
пѓЁcarrier drift velocity ~ 107 cm/s
пѓЁvery short Geiger discharge development < 500 ps
пѓЁpixel recovery time = (Cpixel Rpixel) ~ 20 ns
Photon detection efficiency (PDE):
- for SiPM the QE (~90%) is multiplied by
Geiger efficiency (~60%) and by geometrical
efficiency (sensitive/total area ~30%)
- highest efficiency for green light
пѓЁ important when using with WLS fibers
Temperature and voltage dependence:
-1 oC
пѓЁ +4.2% in Gain * PDE*Xtalk
+0.1 V
пѓЁ +4.5% in Gain * PDE*Xtalk
WLS fiber emission
40
One pixel gain M, 10
5
one pixel gain (exp. data)
one pixel gain (linear fit)
detection efficiency ( l =565nm)
15
30
10
20
5
10
operating voltage
0
0
0
1
Ubreakdown=48V
2
3
4
5
6
Overvoltage DU=U-Ubreakdown, V
Photon detection efficiency пЃҐ = QEпѓ—пЃҐgeom
Efficiencyof light registration пЃҐ , %
20
SiPM signal saturation due to finite number of SiPM pixels
Individual tile energy reconstruction using
calibration curve: SiPM signal vs energy deposited:
Average number of
photoelectrons for
central tiles for 6 GeV
1000
250
1400
1200
LED
Tile
1000
25
10
200
150
800
600
Counts
100
Counts
SiPM signal
1600
100
400
50
200
0
0
200
400
600
TDC channel
800
1000
1200
1ch = 50 ps
1
1
10
100
1000
Number of phe
1
10
1
10000
100 Energy Deposited, MIP
Very fast pixel recovery time ~ 20ns
For large signals each pixel fires about 2 times during pulse from tile
SiPM Noise
noise rate vs. threshold
random trigger
1p.e.
2p.e.
Ped.
3p.e.
1p.e. noise rate ~2MHz.
threshold 3.5p.e. ~10kHz
threshold 6p.e. ~1kHz
Optimization of operating
voltage is subject of R&D
at the moment.
Experience with a small (108ch) prototype (MINICAL)
Moscow
SiPM
cassette
3x3 tiles
Tile with SiPM
Hamburg
Light Yield from Minical tiles (5x5x0.5cm3)
Using triggered Sr source and LED at ITEP
LED
b
N pixel
Using electron beam at DESY
(SiPM signals without amplification)
Good reproducibility after transportation from Moscow to Hamburg
LED and 90Sr signals
Individual photoelectrons are clearly seen
Light Collection Uniformity,
Y11 MC 1mm fiber, Vladimir Scintillator,
mated sides, 3M foil on top and bottom
Reduction in light yield near tile edges
is due to finite size of a b source
Light yield drop between tiles acceptable
(Calorimeter geometry is not projective)
Cross-talk between tiles ~2% - acceptable
Light collection efficiency
5x5x0,5cm3
mm
Sufficient uniformity for a hadron calorimeter even for large tiles
Acceptable cross-talk between tiles of ~2% per side
Sufficient light yield of 17, 28, 21 pixels/mip for 12x12, 6x6, and 3x3 cm2 tiles
(quarter of a circle fiber in case of 3x3 cm2 tile)
Shower Shape
3 GeV e+
Black – data
Yellow -MC
After single tile calibration and
smearing MC describes well
shower shape
NON-LINEARITY and ENERGY RESOLUTION
for DIFFERENT BEAM POSITIONS
1,08
centerindiv
side(0;+15)
side(0;+25)
side(+15;+15)
1,06
1,04
nonlinearity
nonlineari ty пЂЅ
1,02
A( Ei )
FIT ( E i )
For all cases the same fit function is used !
1,00
0,98
SiPM
0,96
0,94
0,92
1
2
3
4
5
6
EnergyE[GeV]
resolution
0,24
0,22
centerindiv
side(0;+15)
side(0;+25)
side(+15;+15)
0,20
dE/E
0,18
0,16
0,14
0,12
0,10
0,08
1
2
3
4
E[GeV]
5
6
Beam position
With universal SiPM calibration curve there is
no differences in response for different beam
positions (different SiPM saturation)
Cassette, Absorber and Support Structure
Cassette contains 220 tiles with SiPM and electronics
There are 40 cassettes between 2cm iron absorber
Altogether about 8000 tiles of 3x3, 6x6 and 12x12 cm2
with SiPM and individual readout
Scan of Strip Using Cosmics
Setup
groove depth 2.5mm
LED
∑ PoissXtalk·G(x0+i·Δx,0+1 ·√i)
cosmics
Center of strip, N pixels (peak) = 9.7
Scan of Strip Using Cosmics Setup (2)
Strip 200x2.5x1cm3
Poisson mean for MIP
at normal incidence
MC: light yield for 4x1cm2 strip
will be ~25% smaller.
In the middle of 280x4x1cm3
strip we expect ~ 9p.e.
With threshold 4.5p.e.
• noise rate <10kHz
• efficiency 98%
• average efficiency >99%
Similar detector - MRS APD - with smaller x-talk and similar efficiency
is under investigation now. Expect efficiency >99.5% with noise <1kHz
Metal-Resistor-Semiconductor APD
(CPTA, Moscow)
MRS APD Cross-talk
MRS APD Efficiency vs.
Wavelength
Measurement of Scintillator
Sensitivity
to Neutron Background at BELLE
Backup Slides
Amplitude Dependence on
Temperature
T=+9.5oC
T=+14.6oC
T=+20.1oC
T=+25.3oC
Light
Yield
of
Individual
MINOS
There is a substantial difference in individual strip responce.
However all strips give more
thanStrips
3p.e. at 3m.
Sc.
Nonuniformity across strip is about 5% only for 4cm x 1cm strips.
SiPM
SiPMs will be tested and calibrated with LED before installation into tiles
(noise, amplification, efficiency, response curve, x-talk)
PC driven generator
LED driver
Steering
program
Remote control
16 channel
power supply
DATA
BASE
…….
..
gate
X~100
16 ch
12 bit ADC
Tested SiPM
16 ch amp
16 ch
12 bit ADC
Scheme of test bench for SiPM selection at ITEP
Tiles will be tested with a triggered ОІ source and LED before installation into cassette
Test bench for tile tests at ITEP
16 chan amps
16 ch remote
control power
supply
b -source
16 ch
12 bit
ADC
Steering
program
16 sci tile plane
step
motor
trigger counter
movable frame
DATA
BASE
discriminator
gate
Emission Spectrum of Y11 WLS
Fiber
Measured at distances 10cm, 30cm, 100cm and 300cm from source.
Comparison of the SiPM characteristics in magnetic field of B=0Tand B=4T
(very prelimenary, DESY March 2004)
LED signal ~150 pixels
A=f(G, пЃҐ, x)
No Magnetic Field dependence at 1% level
(Experimental data accuracy)
Long term stability of SiPM
20 SiPMs worked during 1500 hours
Parameters under control:
•One pixel gain
•Efficiency of light registration
•Cross-talk
•Dark rate
•Dark current
•Saturation curve
•Breakdown voltage
No changes within
experimental
errors
5 SiPM were tested 24 hours at increased temperatures of
30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 degrees
No changes within experimental accuracy
Документ
Категория
Презентации
Просмотров
13
Размер файла
3 342 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа