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Detectors and Energy deposition

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Detectors and
energy deposition
in media
(thanks to J.Thomas (LBNL))
1
ATLAS vs PHENIX vs ….
They are about the same size
They are about the same shape
Are they really different?
ATLAS
Even fixed target
detectors look like an
angular slice of one of
these detectors
PHENIX
2
References
Outstanding References
• Particle Properties Data Booklet
– Particle properties
– Excellent summaries of particle detection techniques
– http://pdg.lbl.gov to view the pages or order your own copy
• Sauli’s lecture notes on wire chambers (CERN 77-09)
• W. Blum and L. Rolandi, “Particle Detection with Drift
Chambers”, Springer, 1994.
This talk relies heavily on additional resources from the Web
• C. Joram
• T.S. Verdee
• S. Stapnes
– CERN Summer Student Lectures 2003
– SUSSP 2003
– CERN School of Phyics 2002
3
The Oldest Particle Detector –
and a good one, too.
• High sensitivity to
photons
• Good spatial
resolution
• Large dynamic
range 1:1014
• (Once upon a time)
Used to tune
cyclotron beams via
scintillation light
retina
4
What should a particle detector do?
J. PlГјcker 1858 пѓ J.J. Thomson 1897
Thomson’s cathode ray tube
accelerator
manipulation
By E or B field
detector
• Note the scale pasted on the outside of the tube!
• Glass scintillates and we “see” the effect on the electron beam
• Today … mean pt is 500 MeV so we need a meter of steel and
concrete to stop the particle and make a total energy measurement.
5
First electrical signal from a particle
E. Rutherford
1909
H. Geiger
pulse
The Geiger counter
6
First tracking detector
C. T. R. Wilson,
1912, Cloud chamber
The general procedure was to allow water
to evaporate in an enclosed container to
the point of saturation and then lower the
pressure, producing a super-saturated
volume of air. Then the passage of a
charged particle would condense the
vapor into tiny droplets, producing a
visible trail marking the particle's path.
7
Detector Philosophy
• Particles are detected by their interaction with matter
• Many different physical principals are involved
–
–
–
–
Electromagnetic
Weak
Strong
Gravity
• Most detection techniques rely on the EM interaction
– Although, all four fundamental forces are used to measure and
detect particles
• Ultimately, we observe ionization and excitation of matter.
this day and age, it always ends up as an electronic signal.
In
8
Interaction of Charges Particles with Matter
Coulomb Scattering
d пЃі /d пЃ—
An incoming particle with charge z interacts with
a target of nuclear charge Z. The cross-section
for this e.m. process is
dпЃі
dпЃ—
пЂЅ
2
2пѓ¦
4 zZr e пѓ§пѓ§
mec пѓ¶
1
пѓ·пѓ·
4
пѓЁ пЃў p пѓё sin пЃ± 2
Rutherford formula
пЃ±
L
Average scattering angle < Оё > = 0
Cross-section for Оё в†’ 0 is infinite !
This implies that there will be many soft scattering events.
r p la ne
пЃ± p la ne
Multiple Coulomb Scattering
sian
Gaus
P
In sufficiently thick material layer п‚® the particle will undergo
multiple scattering. There will be angular deflections and energy loss.
пЃ±0 п‚»
13 . 6 MeV
пЃў c p
z
x
X0
пЃ› 1 пЂ« 0 . 20
ln пЂЁ x / X 0 пЂ©
sin -4(пЃ±
/2)
пЃќ
пЃ±пЂ°
Radiation Length
0
пЃ±plane
9
How do particles lose energy in matter?
п‚Ґ
dE
пЂЅ пЂ­ пѓІ NE
dx
0
dпЃі
пЃІ
v , m0
пЃЁ dпЃ·
пЃ±
dE
пЃЁпЃ· , пЃЁk
e-
dE
dx
п‚µ
1
пЃў
2
“kinematic term”
“minimum ionizing particles”   3-4
Bethe-Bloch Formula
dE
dx
“relativistic rise”
dE
п‚µ ln пЃў пЃ§
2
2
dx
2 2
2
1 пѓ© пѓ¦ 2mec пЃ§ пЃў пѓ¶
пЃ¤пѓ№
2
2 2 Z
2
пѓ§
пѓ·
пЂЅ пЂ­ 4 пЃ° N A re m e c z
ln
пЂ­
пЃў
пЂ­
пѓє
2 пѓЄ
пѓ·
A пЃў пѓ« пѓ§пѓЁ
I
2пѓ»
пѓё
density effect
ionization
constant
10
dE/dx depends on пЃў
• dE/dx depends only on 
and is independent of mass
• Particles with different
masses have different
momenta (for same пЃў)
• dE/dx in [MeV g-1cm2]
– in a gas detector this
gets shortened to
keV/cm.
Pep 4 TPC
• First approximation:
medium characterized by
electron density, N ~ Z/A.
11
Landau tails
Real detectors (limited granularity) can not measure <dE/dx> .
They measure the energy DE deposited in a layer of finite thickness пЃ¤x.
For thin layers п‚® Few collisions, some with high energy transfer.
<DE>
eп‚® Energy loss distributions show large
fluctuations towards high losses:
”Landau tails” due to “ electrons”
DE
For thick layers and high density materials п‚® Many collisions
п‚® Central Limit Theorem п‚® Gaussian shape distributions.
e-
<DE>
DE
12
Ionization of gases
Fast charged particles ionize the atoms of a gas.
Primary ionization
10 - 40 pairs/cm
DE/pair ~ 25 eV
Total ionization
n total
п‚» 3пЃ‹ 4 пѓ— n
primary
Often the resulting primary electron will have enough kinetic
energy to ionize other atoms.
Assume detector, 1 cm thick, filled with Ar gas:
1 cm
~ 100 e-ion pairs
100 electron-ion pairs are not easy to detect!
Noise of amplifier п‚» 1000 e- (ENC) !
We need to increase the number of e-ion pairs.
13
Gas Amplification in a Proportional Counter
Consider cylindrical field geometry (simplest case):
E
E пЂЁr пЂ© пЂЅ
V (r ) пЂЅ
CV 0
пѓ—
g as
1
E th resh o ld
2пЃ°пЃҐ 0 r
CV 0
2пЃ°пЃҐ 0
пѓ— ln
ca tho d e
b
r
a
a
1 /r
C = capacitance / unit length
a no de
a
Electrons drift towards the anode wire
r
Close to the anode wire the electric field is sufficiently high (kV/cm),
that the e- gain enough energy for further ionization п‚® exponential
increase in the number of e--ion pairs.
14
Signal Formation - Proportional Counter
(F. Sauli, CERN 77-09)
Avalanche form within a few radii or
the wire and within t < 1 ns!
Signal induction both on anode and
cathode due to moving charges (both
electrons and ions).
dv пЂЅ
Q
dV
dr
lCV 0 dr
Electrons are collected on the anode wire, (i.e. dr is small, only a few mm).
Electrons contribute only very little to detected signal (few %).
(F. Sauli, CERN 77-09)
Ions have to drift back to
cathode, i.e. dr is big.
Signal duration limited by
total ion drift time !
We need electronic signal differentiation to limit dead time.
15
Multiwire Proportional Chamber
Multi wire proportional chamber (MWPC)
(G. Charpak et al. 1968, Nobel prize 1992)
field lines and equipotentials around anode wires
Address of fired wire(s) only give 1-dimensional information. This is sometimes
called “Projective Geometry”. It would be better to have a second dimension ….
Typical parameters:
L = 5mm, d = 1mm, rwire= 20mm.
Normally digital readout:
spatial resolution limited to
пЃі
x
п‚»
d
12
( d=1mm, пЃіx=300 mm )
16
The Second Dimension … 2D readout
Crossed wire planes. Ghost hits. Restricted to low multiplicities.
90 degrees or stereo planes crossing at small angle.
Charge division: Resistive wires (Carbon,2kпЃ—/m).
y
trac k
y
QB
QA
L
пЂЅ
QB
Q A пЂ« QB
пѓ¦ yпѓ¶
пѓ· up to 0 . 4 %
пѓЁLпѓё
пЃіпѓ§
L
Timing difference:
L
y
пЃі ( D T ) пЂЅ 100 ps
trac k
п‚® пЃі ( y ) п‚» few cm
CFD
DT
CFD
Segmented cathode planes:
Analog readout of cathode
planes п‚® пЃі п‚» 100 mm
17
Timing Difference: Drift Chambers
Drift Chambers :
DELAY
S top
scintillator
•
•
•
•
Reduced numbers of
readout channels
Distance between
wires typically 5-10cm
giving around 1-2 ms
drift-time
Resolution of
50-100mm achieved
limited by field
uniformity and
diffusion
Perhaps problems
with occupancy of
tracks in one cell.
S tart
TDC
x
drift
a no de
Measure arrival time of
electrons at sense wire
relative to a time t0.
xпЂЅ
low field region
drift
пѓІv
D
( t ) dt
high field reg ion
gas am p lification
(First studies: T. Bressani, G. Charpak, D. Rahm, C. Zupancic, 1969
First operation drift chamber: A.H. Walenta, J. Heintze, B. SchГјrlein, NIM 92 (1971) 373)
18
Drift Chambers: Many Possible Designs
•
What happens
during the drift
towards the
anode wire?
– We need to
know the drift
velocity
– Diffusion, too.
(U. Becker, in: Instrumentation in High Energy Physics, World Scientific)
42mm
Wire
Electrode
Strip
13 mm
Mylar
19
Drift and Diffussion in Gases
Without external fields:
Electrons and ions will lose their energy due to collisions with the gas atoms п‚® thermalization
пЃҐ пЂЅ
3
kT п‚» 40 meV
2
Undergoing multiple collisions, a localized ensemble of charges will diffuse
dN
пЂЅ
N
1
4 пЃ° Dt
e
пЂ­( x
2
4 Dt )
dN
dx
пЃіx
пЃЋ
пЃі x (t )
2
пЃі x (t ) пЂЅ
2 Dt
or
D пЂЅ
t
2t
D: diffusion coefficient
пЃ…
With External electric field:
e-
multiple collisions due to
scattering from gas atoms п‚® drift
пЃІ
пЃІ
vD пЂЅ mE
m пЂЅ
eпЃґ
m
(mobility)
Typical electron drift velocity: 5 cm/ms
Ion drift velocities are ~1000 times smaller
20
3D: The Time Projection Chamber
Time Projection Chamber п‚® full 3-D track reconstruction
•
•
•
STAR TPC
x-y from wires and segmented cathode of MWPC
z from drift time
in addition dE/dx information
Diffusion significantly reduced by B-field.
Requires precise knowledge of vD п‚®
LASER calibration + p,T corrections
Drift over long distances п‚® very good gas
quality required
Gate open
Gate closed
Space charge problem from positive ions, drifting
back to midwall п‚® use a gated grid
ALEPH TPC
(ALEPH coll., NIM A 294 (1990) 121,
W. Atwood et. Al, NIM A 306 (1991) 446)
DVg = 150 V
Г� 3.6M, L=4.4 m
пЃіRf пЂЅ 173 mm
пЃіz пЂЅ 74пЂ° mm
(isolated leptons)
21
Momentum Measurement in a Uniform Field
L
mv
2
пЃІ
x
B
пЂЅ q (v п‚ґ B )
p T пЂЅ qB пЃІ
п‚®
s
y
p T ( GeV c ) пЂЅ 0 . 3 B пЃІ
L
2пЃІ
пЃІ
пЃ±
пЂЅ sin пЃ± 2 п‚» пЃ± 2
(T пѓ— m)
п‚®
пЃ± п‚»
0 .3 L пѓ— B
pT
s пЂЅ пЃІ пЂЁ1 пЂ­ cos пЃ± 2 пЂ© п‚» пЃІ
пЃ±
2
8
2
п‚»
0 .3 L B
8
pT
The sagitta s пЂЅ x 2 пЂ­ 12 ( x1 пЂ« x 3 ) is determined by 3 measurements with error пЃі(x):
пЃі пЂЁ pT
пЂ©
meas .
пЂЅ
pT
пЃі пЂЁ pT
pT
пЃі (s)
3
2
пЂЅ
s
пЂ©
meas .
пЂЅ
s
пЃі ( x ) пѓ— pT
0 . 3 пѓ— BL
пЃі ( x)
2
пЂЅ
пЃі ( x ) пѓ— 8 pT
0 . 3 пѓ— BL
720 /( N пЂ« 4 )
2
пѓ—
3
2
( N > 10 )
22
Momentum Resolution: the STAR Magnet + TPC
MCS Contribution
B Field
limited
• Momentum resolution is only limited by the strength of
the magnetic field and is independent of the mass of the
particle at high PT
• Momentum resolution at low PT is determined by multiple
coulomb scattering (MCS)
23
Semiconductor Detectors: Silicon
-V
1 mm A l
~ 1 0 18 / m 3
E le c tro n s
D e p le te d
Laye r
H o le s
p+ implant
The typical
Semiconductor
detector is a
based on a Si
diode structure
Si (n type)
n+ implant
1 mm A l
+ V
Interaction with
ionizing radiation
Reading out
the pixels
24
The Properties of Silicon
• Si Structures
are small and
can be mass
produced in
large arrays
• Ideal for
locating a
point on the
track of a
particle
25
Scintillation Light: Inorganic Scintillators
PbWO4 ingot and final
polished CMS ECAL
scintillator crystal from
Bogoroditsk Techno-Chemical
Plant (Russia).
26
Inorganic Scintillators: NaI, BGO, PbWO4, …
• Excitation of electrons
into the conduction
band allows light to be
produced during
relaxation to the ground
state.
co ndu ction b and
ex cito n
band
scintillatio n
(20 0-60 0n m )
excitation
quenching
lum ine scense
activatio n
cen tres
(im pu rities)
electro n
ho le
valence b and
traps
Eg
• Inorganic scintillators
are usually high density
and high Z materials
• Thus they can stop
ionizing radiation in a
short distance
27
Scintillation Light: Organic Scintillators
•
•
Liquid and plastic
organic scintillators
are available
They normally
consist of a solvent
plus secondary (and
tertiary) fluors as
wavelength shifters.
M o le c u la r s ta te s
sin g le t s ta te s
S3
1 0 -1 1 s
S2
S1
trip le t sta te s
nonra d ia tive
T2
T1
flu o re sce n ce
1 0 -8 - 1 0 -9 s
p h o so h o re sce n ce
> 1 0 -4 s
S0
28
Scintillator Readout Schemes
Geometrical adaptation:
Light guides: transfer by total internal reflection (+outer reflector)
adiabatic
“fish tail”
Wavelength shifter (WLS) bars
W LS
g re e n
s m a ll a ir g a p
PPhotoDetector
h o to d e te c to r
b lu e (s e c o n d a ry )
U V (p rim a ry )
s c in tilla to r
p rim a ry p a rtic le
29
Photo Multiplier Tubes (PMT)
photon
e-
(Philips Photonic)
Main phenomena:
• photo emission from photo cathode.
• secondary emission from dynodes.
dynode gain g = 3-50 (f(E))
• total gain
10 dynodes with g=4
M = 410 п‚» 106
30
Scintillator Applications
Tracking
Charged particle passing through
a stack of scintillating fibers
(diam. 1mm)
Sampling Calorimeters
Absorber + detector separated п‚® additional
sampling fluctuations
d e te c to rs
a b s o rb e rs
d
Time of Flight
Measure the time of flight of a particle
between a thin, flat, “start” counter and a
thin “stop” counter.
31
Measurement of Energy: Calorimeters
Big European Bubble Chamber
filled with Ne:H2 = 70%:30%
3T field, L=3.5m, X0=34 cm
50 GeV incident electron
32
Electromagnetic Cascade
33
Electromagnetic Cascade: Longitudinal Development
34
Radiation Length and the Moliere Radius
35
Hadronic Cascade
36
150 GeV Pion Showers in Cu
Hadron shower not as well
behaved as an em one
Hadron calorimeter are
always sampling calorimeters
37
Hadronic Cascade: Profiles
38
Lets Design a Detector: Requirements
Very good particle identification
trigger efficiently and measure ID and momentum of all particles
High resolution electromagnetic calorimetry
Powerful inner tracking systems
Improves momentum resolution, find tracks of short lived particles
Hermetic coverage
good rapidity coverage, good missing ET resolution
Affordable detector
39
�Cylindrical Onion-like’ Structure of HENP Detectors
Materials with high number of
protons + Active material
Hermetic calorimetry
• Missing Et measurements
Heavy materials
Electromagnetic
and Hadron
calorimeters
• Particle identification
(e, пЃ§ Jets, Missing E
• Energy measurement
T
)
Вµ
e
пЃ§
Muon detector
n
• µ identification
p
пЃ®
Heavy materials
(Iron or Copper + Active material)
Light materials
Central detector
• Tracking, p T , MIP
• Em. shower position
• Topology
• Vertex
Each layer identifies and enables the measurement of the
momentum or energy of the particles produced in a collision
40
The STAR Detector at RHIC
Time
Projection
Chamber
Magnet
Coils
Silicon
Tracker
SVT & SSD
TPC
Endcap
& MWPC
FTPCs
Beam
Beam
Counters
Endcap
Calorimeter
Central
Trigger
Barrel
& TOF
Barrel EM
Calorimeter
Not Shown: pVPDs, ZDCs, PMD, and FPDs
41
Conclusions
• We have taken a random walk through a variety of detector
technologies and put the pieces together into a detector
• You can repeat this exercise using the PDG booklet (!)
– It contains a wealth of information
– It is extremely well written and only contains the most essential
information
• The design of HENP detectors is driven by the desire to
measure the ID and momentum of all particles in the range
from 100 MeV to 100 GeV.
– all 4 components of the momentum 4-vector (E, px, py, pz)
– all 4 components of the spacial 4-vector (ct, x, y, z)
• If you can afford to do this with full 4 coverage, then your
detector will end up looking pretty much like all the other
big detectors. However, there are big differences in the
details and cost effectiveness of each detector design.
42
Two “Large” Detectors at RHIC
STAR
PHENIX
Solenoidal field
Large Solid Angle Tracking
TPC’s, Si-Vertex Tracking
RICH, EM Cal, TOF
Axial Field
High Resolution & Rates
2 Central Arms, 2 Forward Arms
TEC, RICH, EM Cal, Si, TOF, m-ID
Measurements of Hadronic observables
using a large acceptance spectrometer
Leptons, Photons, and Hadrons in
selected solid angles (especially muons)
Event-by-event analyses of global
observables, hadronic spectra and jets
Simultaneous detection of phase
transition phenomena (e–m coincidences)
43
Two “Small” Experiments at RHIC
BRAHMS
PHOBOS
2 Spectrometers - fixed target geometry
Magnets, Tracking Chambers, TOF, RICH
“Table-top” 2 Arm Spectrometer Magnet,
Si m-Strips, Si Multiplicity Rings, TOF
Paddle Trigger Counter
TOF
Spectrometer
Ring Counters
Inclusive particle production over a large
rapidity and pt range
Octagon+Vertex
Low pt charged hadrons
Multiplicity in 4пЃ° & Particle Correlations
44
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