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Progress report on SiPM development and its

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TRD2005,Bari,10.09.05
Progress report on SiPM development
and its applications
Boris Dolgoshein
Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute
Boris@mail.cern.ch
пѓЁ
Single photon Avalance Diodes(SPAD’s): S.Cova et al.,Appl.Opt.35(1996)19
TWO STEPS IN DEVELOPMENTS OF GEIGER MODE
APD:
пЃ± FIRST STEP: SINGLE PHOTON AVALANCHE DIODE (SPAD),
based on single pixel “photon counter”
пЃ± SECOND STEP: from SPAD to
hпЃ®
Silicon Photomultiplier
(SiPM)
50пЃ—
46 pixels fired
Depletion
1-2пЃ­m
R 50пЃ—
substrat
e
Multipixel
(typically ≤ 1 mm2)
Geiger mode
photodiode with
common readout
Ubias
пЃ± NEXT STEP: Large area SiPM`s from 1x1 mm2 пЂЅ> up to 10x10
mm2
B.Dolgoshein,’Large area SiPM’s…’
 SiPM’s have been developed in Russia during last
~10 years(see International Conferences on New
Developments in Photodetection ICNDP-1999,
2002,2005)
п‚·
There are four SiPM’s producers for the time
being-at the level of test batches production:
Center of Perspective Technology and Apparatus
CPTA,Moscow
MEPhI/Pulsar Enterprise,Moscow
JINR(Dubna)/Micron Enterprise
HAMAMATSU started the SiPM production last year
SiPM today-reminder:
пѓ� Pixel size ~20-30пЃ­m
42пЃ­m
пѓ� Working point: VBias = Vbreakdown + DV ~ 50-60 V
DV ~ 3V above breakdown voltage
20пЃ­m
pixel
hпЃ®
Resistor
Rn=400 kпЃ—
-20M пЃ—
Al
R 50пЃ—
Depletion
Region
2 пЃ­m
Substrate
пѓ�Each pixel behaves as a Geiger counter with
Qpixel = DV Cpixel with Cpixel~50fmF пѓЁ
Qpixel~150fmC=106e
Electrical inter-pixel cross-talk minimized by:
- decoupling quenching resistor for each pixel
- boundaries between pixels to decouple them
пѓЁ reduction of sensitive area
and geometrical (packing) efficiency
Very fast Geiger discharge development < 500
ps
Pixel recovery time = (Cpixel Rpixel) ~ 20 ns …1mks
Ubias
Dynamic range ~ number of pixels пѓЁ saturation
3x3mm SiPM parameters
Sensitive area : 3x3 mm2 # of pixels:
5625
Depletion region: appr. 1 пЃ­m
Pixel size: 30 пЃ­mx30 пЃ­m
Working voltage: 20…25 V Gain: 1…2
x10**6
Dark rate.room temperature: 20 MHz
SiPM noise(FWHM):
room temperature 5-8 electrons
-50 C
0.4 electrons
Single pixel recovery time: 1us
After pulsing probability: appr. 1%
Optical crosstalk: appr. 30 - 50 %
ENF: appr. 1.5-2.0(overvoltage
dependent)
Spectral dependence of the photon detection
efficiency (PDE) for different photodetectors
п‚Ё
пѓ© 178nm-5.5%,(1mmx1mm SiPM)
20
40
o ne pixe l ga in (e xp. da ta )
de te c tio n e ffic ie nc y ( пЃ¬ =5 6 5 nm )
30
10
20
5
10
0
0
O ne pixe l ga in M , 1 0
5
15
0
U
break d ow n
1
=4 8 V
2
O ve rvo lta ge
3
D U =U -U
4
5
,V
break d ow n
Photon detection efficiency= QE(~80%)x
x packing efficiency(active/total area,~40%)x
x Geiger efficiency(~70%)
6
E ffic ie nc y o f ligh t re gis tra tio n пЃҐ , %
o ne pixe l ga in (line a r fit)
Optical Crosstalk OC
–due to secondary light emitted
in Geiger discharge: 10**-5 photons/one electron
 adjacent pixels are fired- fig’s.
OC increases drastically with a Gain
пѓў becomes >1 for a Gain > few timesx10**7 пѓЁselfsustening
discharge
пѓў pixel independence and Poisson statistics of fired pixels
are violated
пѓў Excess Noise Factor ENF becomes too large
Secondary light:
Effective absorption length(Si)- appr. 50 mkm
Effective wavelength- appr. 1000 nm
B.Dolgoshein,’Large area SiPM’s…’
1
32 mkm
64 mkm
Optical crosstalk
0,1
96 mkm
128 mkm
0,01
1E-3
0
1
2
3
Gain, 10
4
6
B.Dolgoshein,’Large area SiPM’s…’
5
Optical crosstalk,SiPM 1x1 mm2,dark noise
0
10000
SiPM
1
Z-type. U-Ubd=8V. kopt=1,85. tgate=80ns.
Crosstalk==>non-Poissonian
distribution:
QDC LeCroy 2249A. Noise.
1000
Counts
Gain 3x10**6
pixel fired/phe=1.7
100
ENF=1.6
10
1
200
400
600
800
1000
QDC channel
10000
Gain 3x10**7
events
1000
100
Crosstalk suppression by
special SiPM topology:
test structure,PRELIMINARY!
Poisson distribution:
pixel fired/phe= 0.98+-0.03
10
1
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
ENF= 0.97+-0.05
channel
B.Dolgoshein,’Large area SiPM’s…’
Recovery time of single pixel: C(pix)xR(pix)-->20ns…..a few mks
Recovery time. SiPM Z105 (U=60,13). Ubreakdown=52,4V. 13/01/2005
LED L53SYC (595nm), timpulse=10ns, Ugen=-9v, L=1sm.
Amplitude of the second impulse, mV
2000
1800
Data: Data1_amp
Model: ExpDecay1
Equation: y = y0 + A1*exp(-(x-x0)/t1)
Weighting:
y
No weighting
1600
1400
1200
Chi^2/DoF
= 565.44691
R^2
= 0.99897
1000
y0
x0
A1
t1
800
1932.69131
77.60337
-1926.00611
1615.08307
В±11.98254
В±-В±-В±37.05734
600
Charge
first and second impulse arear = (-2,6:10) ns = -10,60622 V*ns
one pixel arear = (-0,4:4)ns = -0,01907 V*ns
Npixels = 556
400
200
0
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
Distance between two light impulses, ns
12000
12
a)
400
9
350
8
300
7
250
6
200
5
10
12
14
16
18
20
0
T em pe ratur e T , C
22
24
26
75 0
15
50 0
10
25 0
5
5
10
pixel ga in
M IP
b)
5
450
8
20
11
M IP
Pixe l ga in , 1 0
M I P, Q DC ch an n els
500
100 0
M I P , Q D C c ha nn els
pixel ga in
0
53
54
55
56
B ia s v oltage U , V
Fig .5
Temperature and bias voltage dependence:
delta T(V)
Gain
Signal=GainxPDE
-1 C
+2.2%
+4.5%
+0.1V
+4.3%
+7%
0
57
P ix el ga in , 1 0
550
Comparison of the SiPM characteristics in magnetic field of B=0Tand B=4T
(very prelimenary, DESY March 2004)
LED signal ~150 pixels
A=f(G, пЃҐ, x)
No Magnetic Field dependence at 1% level
(Experimental data accuracy)
SiPM signal saturation due to the limited
total number of Sipm’s pixels
Number of pixels fired
Response functions for the SiPMs with different total
pixel numbers measured for 40 ps laser pulses
1000
100
576
1024
4096
10
1
1
10
100
1000
10000
Number of photoelectrons
Long term stability of SiPM
20 SiPMs worked during 1500 hours
Parameters under control:
•One pixel gain
•Efficiency of light registration
•Cross-talk
•Dark rate
•Dark current
•Saturation curve
•Breakdown voltage
No changes within
experimental
errors
5 SiPM were tested 24 hours at increased temperatures of
30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 degrees
No changes within experimental accuracy
SiPM long term stability
20 tested SiPMs worked during 1500 hours
Parameters
under control:
10
•Efficiency of
light registration
•One pixel gain
•Dark rate
•Dark current
S iP M p a ra m e te rs
10
3
d a rk ra te, k H z
2
b e fo re tests
after 5 0 0 h o u rs
10
10
10
10
e ffic ien cy o f ligh t re gistra tio n , %
1
after 1 5 0 0 h o u rs
6
g ain (* 1 0 )
0
-1
d ark c u rren t, m ic ro A m p er
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
S iP M n u m b er
14
16
18
20
+
Low noise,high gain
SiPM today:
Good single electron resolution
Very good timing
Small recovery time
Very low nuclear counting effect
Insensitivity to B
Simple calibration and monitoring
Vow bias voltage
Low power consumption
Compactness
Room temperature operation
Good T and V stability
Simplest electronics
Relatively low expected cost(low
resistivity Si,simple technology)
-
Not very high PDE
Small area
High dark rate(~ area)
Exess Noise Factor is
large enough due to
Optical Xtalk
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