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Science in Elite sport

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Optimization of Swimming Performance
Emotion- & Action-Centered Approaches
Juri Hanin & Muza Hanina
(juri.hanin@kihu.fi)
Research Institute for Olympic Sports,
Jyväskylä, Finland
Swimming Coaches’ Seminar
28.12.2011 Riga, Lavia
9/23/2014
1
Исследования и консультирование
Спортсмены, тренеры, команды:
1967- 1990 - в России
- 4 Oлимпиады
1991- 2011 - в Финляндии - 8 Oлимпиад
Основные виды спорта:
командные: хоккей, футбол, волейбол, гребля
индивидуальные: л/атлетика, плавание. прыжки в
воду, cтрельба, bowling, гольф, sailing, лыжи,
фиг-катание, гимнастика, oриентирование, теннис,
etc.
Спортивная психология - тенденции в
прошлом
1. Акцент на проблемах:
стресс-реакции
тревога
мертвая точка
коррекция недостатков
2. Групповые сравнения:
акцент на средних, успешных и неуспешных,
игнорирование внутриинд. динамики
Спортивная психология сейчас
1. Акцент на позитивном:
выявление инд. ресурсов (strengths)
использование стресса
оптимизация деятельности
2. Главный акцент на индивиде:
индивидуально лучший уровень
стабильность и внутри-инд. динамика
* Hanin, 2000, 2003
Психологическая подготовка систематическое использование
психологических процессов чтобы влиять
на мысли, эмоции, мотивацию, поведение,
действия, и общение спортсмена (или
команды) в специфическом контексте.
* Hanin, 1997
Психологическая подготовка
Общая
Специальная
• умения и навыки
• качества
• черты
• готовность
Успех в спорте/жизни
Стабильность
• ситуативный успех
• выполнение задачи
Optimal Performance:
1. Is based on own strengths
2. Uses personal resources effectively
3. Adjustable under different & difficult conditions
4. Provides tools for personal control
5. Helps to avoid trying too much
6. Involves a skill to deal with the unexpected
7. Helps to re-focus when distracted
8. Consistent performance (PB, SB, top 5)
7
Non-optimal performance in elite sport
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
High performance variability in practices
Good performance in practice, not in competition
Good performance in a warm-up, not in competition
Best results usually in minor competitions
Stress-induced instability of technique
“Lost move syndrome” (LMS) (a ”break-down”)
Habitual (learned) performance errors
Post-injury impact on skill execution
Physical shape (over-development of qualities)
Over-loaded by too many changes
* Hanin & Hanina, 1999-2010
8
Optimization in Sport
Emotion - centered
Personal meaning
Optimal goal setting
Right focus
Optimal energy level
Avoiding dysfunction
Optimal state
Action - centered
Identify ind. optimal skill
Build up a skill chain
Enhance awareness
Standardize skill in practice
Develop competition model
Optimal skill
9
Psychology in elite sport
4. Consistent excellence
3. Peak performance (winning)
2. Competing effectively (stress-free)
1. High quality practices (hard & smart)
Hanin, 1994, 2002
10
Environment
Emotions
Consistent Excellence
Personality
Coping skills
*Hanin, 2006
11
Myths about emotion in elite sport
“Negative emotions are always bad”
“Positive emotions are always good”
“Thus: more positive + less negative”
Positive emotions
Negative emotions
P & N emotions
* Hanin, 1995
Well-being
Ill-being
Performance
12
Emotion-centered Coping
To prevent overreaction to competitve stress
To reinforce situational success
To deal with unexpected distractions
To get ”psyched up” & mobilized
To calm down after unexpected success
To calm down after situational failure
To deal with potential problems
13
Resources-based appraisals
Emotion
Control
”I want”
”I can”
Emotional
State
Task
Execution
Outcomes
”I must”
Action
Control
14
Emotion content
Pleasure
P+
• Pleasant
• helpful
• optimal
• facilitating
• Pleasant
• harmful
• dysfunctional
• debilitating
Success
N+
* Hanin, 1992
P-
Failure
• Unpleasant
• helpful
• optimal
• facilitating
• Unpleasant
• harmful
• dysfunctional
• debilitating
Displeasure
N15
Idiosyncratic emotion labels
Poor
NAthlete # 1
Athlete # 2
S uc c e s s
N+
• Scared
• Panicky
• Discouraged
• Sluggish
• Aggressive
• Concerned
• Anxious
• Intense
• Anxious
• Tired
• Depressed
• Sad
• Angry
• Worried
• Irritated
• Tense
* Hanin, 1997, 2003; Hanin & Syrjä, 1995
Poor
P+
• Motivated
• Confident
• Energetic
• Excited
•
•
•
•
Willing
Relaxed
Sure
Focused
P• Comfortable
• Calm
• Happy
• Satisfied
• Nice
• Calm
• Pleased
• Content
16
Emotions in hockey (N=97)
Negative
Harmful: (N-) Helpful (N+)
Tired
Sluggish
Unwilling
Uncertain
Downhearted
Depressed
Distressed
Sorrowful
Afraid
Strained
* Hanin & Lukkarila, 1999
Tense
Dissatisfied
Vehement
Attacking
Intense
Angry
Irritated
Nervous
Provoked
Restless
Positive
Helpful (P+)
Harmful (P-)
Energetic
Confident
Charged
Certain
Motivated
Purposeful
Willing
Cheerful
Enthusiastic
Alert
Easy-going
Tranquil
Satisfied
Overjoyed
Excited
Pleasant
Comfortable
Calm
Exalted
Nice
17
N - Dejection Zone
Unpleasant and dysfunctional emotions
______ _________________________________________________
Tired; Sluggish; Reluctant; Doubtful; Sad;
Unhappy; Upset; Distressed; Fearful; Worried
________________________________________________________
“I can’t do it” > “I don’t want to do it” > “Do I have to do it?”
18
N+ “Emergency zone”
Unpleasant but functionally optimal emotions
_________________________________________
Tense; Dissatisfied; Furious; Attacking; Intense;
Angry; Irritated; Nervous; Annoyed; Restless
_________________________________________
“I have to do it” > “I want to do it” > I “can do it”
19
P+ Challenge zone
Pleasant and functionally optimal emotions
__________________________________________
Energetic; Confident; Charged; Willing; Motivated;
Purposeful; Certain; Cheerful; Enthusiastic; Alert.
__________________________________________
“I want to do it” > “I can do it” > “I have to do it”
20
P- “Comfort, complacency” zone
Pleasant and dysfunctional emotions
_______________________________________
Easy-going; Tranquil; Satisfied; Joyful; Happy;
Pleased; Comfortable; Calm; Content; Relaxed
________________________________________
“I have done it already” > “I was so good” > “I enjoyed doing it”
21
Emotions & performance
Good performance patterns
Underperformance patterns
20
20
ESP-20
ESP-20
15
10
5
10
5
0
unpleasant, harmful
unpleasant, helpful
N- > N+ <
pleasant, helpful
0
pleasant, harmful
unpleasant, harmful
unpleasant, helpful
N- >
P+ > P-
20
pleasant, helpful
N+ >
pleasant, harmful
P+ > P-
20
15
ESP-20
ESP-20
15
10
5
15
10
5
0
unpleasant, harmful
unpleasant, helpful
N-
< N+ >
pleasant, helpful
pleasant, harmful
P+ > P-
0
unpleasant, harmful
N-
unpleasant, helpful
< N+ <
pleasant, helpful
pleasant, harmful
P+ < P-
22
• overconfidence
• switched off
• satisfaction
• complacency
PAST
• regret
• disappointment
• depressed
• dejected
• ready
• excited
• confident
• in control
PRESENT
• action-oriented
• emergency
• fighting spirit
• angry
• complacency
• overconfidence
• trying too much
• trying too little
FUTURE
• nervous
• tense
• uncertain
• self-doubts
23
Basic mental / psychological skills
Relaxation
On-task attention focus, re-focus
Visualization, imagery, mental rehearsal
Becoming & staying energised
Thought-stopping
Self-talk, Staying positive
Realistic goal-setting
Emotion control
Optimization of communication
Problem solving
Pre- & post-event de-briefing
24
The Need for Action-centered Coping
Underperformance in major competitions
Unexpected skill breakdown
”Lost move” syndrome
Physical shape (too much, too little)
Habitual performance errors under stress
Change-induced problems with technique
”New ideas” from outside
25
Athletes’ typical comments:
I don’t know why it happened…
I was in my best ever shape…
Something happened to my technique…
My technique just ”vanished”
Whatever I tried, it did not help…
I tried too much…
My focus was not clear…
I was distracted by unimportnat details…
I was over-arouzed…
26
Typical emotional response
to problems in technique
Disappointment, frustration,
Self-doubts, low self-confidence
Drop in motivation, helplessness
Fears, panick
Questioning selected program
Relationships problems (coach, team)
27
The Identfication-Control-Correction
(ICC)-program
Motor task as a movement sequence/”chain”
Key components in the ”chain”
Functional links between these components
Subjective perception of ”chain” components
Enhancing awareness of ”chain” components
Using key components to enhance self-control
* Hanina & Hanin, 2002-08
28
Action-centered profiling
nn. Action profile
Self-description
I.
Action focus
Internal-external, single-multiple, process-outcome
II.
Action components
Self-generated movement sequence, a chain
III.
Effort dynamics
Hard-easy, relaxed-tense (% max in start-release)
IV.
Action outcomes
Qualitative (+ / -); quantitative (m, sec., points)
* Hanin & Hanina, 2009
29
Striving for excellence in shooting
N=15 elite Italian shooters (2f & 3m carbine & 5f & 5m pistol)
Age 20-47 (M=27.9, SD=8.1) preparing for London 2012 Olympics
Method: The ICC-based 4-step procedure to identify full shooting sequence
& testing chain components in practice & during simulated competition.
#1 Describe usual optimal sequence (chain of actions) of a single shot from
start to follow-through.
#2 Identify 3-4 most important ( & sensitive ) components (breathing control,
gun alignment and sight, and trigger pull.
#3 Self-assessments of accuracy & ”supervision” of core components with
minimum conscious control under optimal conditions in practices.
#4 Assessment of core components under stress & fatigue to be ”mindully
accepted”. Attention is focused on individual’s core components.
* Bortoli, Bertollo, Hanin & Robazza (Submitted)
30
Shooting sequence in elite pistol shooter*
1. Hand
Core componenets
2. Visualisation
3. Breath
4. Grip
Breath
.63
Grip
.61
5. Descent
6. Zoom
Zoom
.70
7. Follow through
Outcome
Outcome
* Adapted from
Robazza,(2011)
31
The overall results of the intervention
1. Before the intervention most shooters were not fully
aware of the core components of their action (H-1)
2. Accurately identified core components were related to
shooting outcomes (H-2)
3. Accurate execution of the individual core components
of the shooting action contrasts the dysfunctional effects of
distress (H-3)
4. These beneficial effects were not observed in shooters
who did not undergo the intevention (H-4)
* Bortoli, Bertollo, Hanin & Robazza (Submitted).
32
Breast-stroke chain (JH)
Ote kiinni (захват)
Kiihtyvä sisääntuonti (гребок с ускорением)
Suoraan palautukseen (возврат вперёд)
Vartalo jousi (верх тела стрелой)
Sähäkkä potku (энергичный толчёк)
Jalat vartalon takana (ноги сзади)
Teho (интенсивность)
Toistuvuus (стабильность цикла)
33
”Turn” chain (JH)
osuminen seinään (касание стенки)
nopea pyöräminen (быстрый поворот)
vahva ponnistus (сильный толчок)
purevat potkut (энергичная рабта ног)
hyvä pintautuminen (выход на поверхность)
kokonaisuus (целостность)
34
Components of Optimal Swimming
Vartalo (тело)
Käsiveto (гребок)
Siisteys ja kokonaisuus (точность и целостность)
Taktiikka (тактика)
* Hengitys kuulu kiinteänä osana jokaiseen viikkoon
Работа по оптимизации дыхания включена постоянно,
не зависимо от главной темы
35
Success => Optimal Shape + Skill
Best
results
Maximum
Shape
Optimal
- Effort
- Focus
Skill
Poor
results
* Hanin & Hanina, 2009
36
Performance Errors
a mistake, or inaccuracy, or
incorrectness (in action, activity)
the condition of deviating from
accuracy, correctness, or some
standard of a task execution
(Collins English Dictionary. 3rd Ed., 1991, p. 528)
Two strategies in learning motor tasks
Error & trial strategy
Error-free strategy
* errors are ignored
* errors are not discouraged,
* errors are not punished,
* errors are encouraged
* new learning opportunities
* new experiences (+ -)
* errors are immediately noticed
* errors are discouraged
* errors are punished
* errors are minimized
* errors are avoided
* errors are prevented
Expected outcomes:
Expected outcomes:
+ Learning to adjust,
+ Benefit in future situations (transfer)
+ Learning based on natural strengths
- Errors can become consistent
- Getting it right the 1st time?
- No need for adjustment ?
- Learning the right way?
- Less problem with correction?
Conventional skill correction
1. Explain what & why the athlete is doing wrong
2. Improve the athlete’s awareness of doing wrong
3. Show the right way & explain why this way is better
4. Ask the athlete to copy it
5. Provide corrective feedback and reinforcement
6. Get the athlete to practice, practice, and practice
Maschette (1985): Re-teaching pattern
Wrong
”Old”
Correct
”New”
Conventional error correction
Retention and forgetting
Proactive inhibition (PI) is a negative effect of
a learned task on retention of a new task
1
Old
PI
2
New
RI
Retroactive inhibition (RI) is a condition when a recently
learned task impairs the retention of an older learned tasks
Wrong
Correct
Old way / New way
in error correction
Learning Trial in Practice
1. Error analysis (coach + athlete)
Consistent vs. random,
Major - unimportant,
Single-multiple
Learning Trial in Practice
2. Learning Trial Session
Developing awareness of own old way
Developing awareness of the new way
The practice of differences
The practice of the new way
Learning Trial in Practice
3. Summary + home work
Explaining mechanisms
Expected results
Handling spontaneous recovery
Extended intervention procedure:
Error identification from best-worst performances
Old Way as an erroneous movement pattern
Causes & effects of the Old Way are identified
New Way as an individually optimal movement pattern
Learning Trial (LT) for a rapid & permanent change
Post-LT standardization & stabilization of a New Way
The ICC applications (2002-11):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Running (100m, 400m)
Jumping (high, long, pole-vault)
Throwing (javelin, hammer, shot-put)
Swimming (starts, breast-stroke)
Diving (1m & 3m springboard)
Volley-ball (ball reception)
Soccer (free kick)
Pistol & rifle shooting
Car-racing (F-1; DBT; FPA)
Sailing
Bowling
Free-style skiing
47
Ведущая проблематика
1. Психологическая подготовка
2. Стресс и тревога
3. Решение проблемных ситуаций
4. Оптимизация эмоциональных состояний
5. Прогнозирование деятельности
6. Анализ выступлений
7. Оптимизация деятельности
8. Коррекция ошибок
9. Межличное общение игроков и тренеров
10.Тренер как руководитель и лидер
11. Карьера игроков и тренеров
12. Клуб и сборная
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