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From Conception to Birth

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From Conception to Birth
By: Tiffany Davison &
Terry Mercer
Trimesters of Pregnancy
• Pregnancy is divided into
trimesters.
– The 3 stages of pregnancy.
• First Trimester is from Day 1
to the 14th week.
• Second Trimester is from the
15th week to the 28th week.
• Third Trimester is from the
29th week to delivery.
Conception
• In the middle of the month between two
menstrual cycles, a ripened egg bursts out
of the ovary.
• During intercourse, several hundred million
sperm land in the vagina.
• When 1 sperm breaks through the egg’s
membrane, the egg immediately hardens.
• This is when the babies characteristics and
sex are determined.
During the First Trimester
пЃ¶The picture on the
right is a fertilized
egg only thirty hours
after conception.
пЃ¶Magnified here, it is
no larger than the
head of a pin.
пЃ¶ Still rapidly dividing,
the developing
embryo, called a
zygote at this stage,
floats down from the
fallopian tube and
towards the uterus.
First Month
пЃ¶Week 3
пЃ¶At this point, the blastocyst, or developing
embryo, is looking for a spot to implant in
the uterus.
пЃ¶Early formation of the central nervous
system, backbone, and spinal column has
begun.
пЃ¶The gastrointestinal system has also
begun to develop with the kidneys, liver,
and intestines forming.
пЃ¶ The heart has begun to form.
First Month
пЃ¶Week 4
Hormones produced by the embryo stop the
mother's menstrual cycle.
пЃ¶By the end of week four the child is ten
thousand times larger than the fertilized
egg.
Second Month
пЃ¶The most important month to the
embryo’s growth
The Visible Embryo is a visual guide through fetal development from fertilization
пЃ¶By the end of the month most of the
embryo’s internal organs are formed .
2nd Month
пЃ¶Week 5:
пЃ¶ Eyes, legs, and hands begin to develop.
пЃ¶The embryo's tiny heart begins to beat by day
twenty-one.
пЃ¶The brain has developed into 5 areas and some
cranial nerves are visible.
пЃ¶The spinal cord grows faster than the rest of
the body giving a tail like appearance which
disappears as the embryo continues to grow.
пЃ¶The placenta begins to provide nourishment for
the embryo.
пЃ¶Embryo is the size of a grain of sand
:
nd
2
E
v
e
r
y
Month
пЃ¶Week 6: Brain waves are detectable; mouth
and lips are present; fingernails are forming.
o
r
g
a
n
i
s
i
n
p
l
a
c
e
,
пЃ¶The notochord appears which is a rod of
cells, which will eventually becomes the
fetus’s spine.
b
o
n
e
s
b
e
g
i
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t
o
2nd Month
пЃ¶Major organs have all begun to form.
пЃ¶The embryo has developed its own blood
type, unique from the mother's.
пЃ¶Hair follicles and nipples form and knees
and elbows are visible.
пЃ¶Facial features are also observable.
пЃ¶The eyes have a retina and lens.
пЃ¶ The major muscle system is developed and
the embryo is able to move.
Week 7
пЃ¶ Eyelids, and toes form, nose are
distinct. The baby is kicking and
swimming
Week 8
пЃ¶The embryo is reactive to its environment
inside the amniotic sac where it swims and
moves. Hands and feet can be seen. At the
end of week 8, the embryonic period is over
and the fetal stage begins.
пЃ¶Every organ is in place, bones begin to
replace cartilage, and fingerprints begin to
form. By the 8th week the baby can begin to
hear.
пЃ¶Toes and fingers are visible
Week 8
How does the fetus receive
nourishment?
The umbilical cord– a cordlike structure
approx. 22 inches long in the pregnant
female, extending from the abdominal wall of
the fetus to the placenta.
пЃ¶Anything the mother consumes travels to the
fetus thru the umbilical cord
пЃ¶Fetus also receives oxygen thru the umbilical
cord which takes oxygen from your blood and
passes it back as carbon dioxide
пЃ¶After birth cord is clamped off leaving scar
known as navel.
пЃ¶There are no nerves in the umbilical cord so
cutting is not painful
Baby having umbilical cord
clamped
Third Month
• Weeks 9 and 10: Teeth begin to form,
fingernails develop. The baby can turn
his head, and frown. The baby can
hiccup.
• Weeks 10 and 11: The baby can
"breathe" amniotic fluid and
urinate. Week 11 the baby can grasp
objects placed in its hand; all organ
systems are functioning. The baby has
a skeletal structure, nerves, and
circulation.
Fetus 9th-12th week
End of First Trimester
пЃ¶Week 12: The baby has all of the parts
necessary to experience pain, including
nerves, spinal cord, and thalamus. Vocal
cords are complete.
пЃ¶Week 14: At this age, the heart pumps
several quarts of blood through the body
every day.
2nd Trimester
пЃ¶ The brain is fully developed and the fetus can
suck, swallow, and make irregular breathing
sounds.
пЃ¶ Fetus can feel pain. Fetal skin is almost
transparent.
пЃ¶ Muscles tissue is lengthening and bones are
becoming harder.
пЃ¶ Liver and organs produce appropriate fluids.
пЃ¶ Eyebrows and eyelashes appear and the fetus
makes active movements including kicks and
even somersaults.
Week 15 & 16
At 16 weeks, your baby is growing rapidly, and can fit inside a
Teacup.
4th Month
The external organs become male or female
Bone marrow is beginning to form
Heart is pumping 25 quarts of blood a day
At the end of the month the fetus will become
8-10 inches in length and one half of its birth
weight.
пЃ¶ Fingerprints are forming
пЃ¶ Teeth are forming.
пЃ¶ The uterus expands throughout pregnancy,
but the increase is not usually visible until the
4th month
пЃ¶
пЃ¶
пЃ¶
пЃ¶
2nd Trimester
пЃ¶Week 17: The baby can have dream
(REM) sleep.
пЃ¶Week 19: Babies can routinely be
saved at 21 to 22 weeks after
fertilization, and sometimes they can
be saved even younger.
Week 20
Week 20
“Quickening” (when the mother can feel the
fetus moving) usually occurs around this
time.
пЃ¶Finger and toenails appear.
пЃ¶Lanugo, a fine hair now covers the entire
body.
пЃ¶The fetus can hear and recognize the
mother’s voice.
пЃ¶Sex organs are visible on ultrasound
devices.
пЃ¶Fetus may be sucking its thumb at 20 weeks
Week 24
пЃ¶ A protective waxy substance called Vernix
covers the skin. By birth, most of the Vernix will
be gone but any that is left is quickly absorbed.
пЃ¶ Fetus has a hand and startle reflex.
пЃ¶ Footprints and fingerprints are forming.
пЃ¶ Fetus practices breathing by inhaling amniotic
fluid into its developing lungs.
пЃ¶ Fetus may start responding to loud noises and
music
Week 24
Beginning of 3rd Trimester
Weeks 25 - 28
пЃ¶Rapid brain development occurs during this
period and the nervous system is able to
control some bodily functions.
The fetus’ eyelids now open and close.
пЃ¶At 25 weeks there is a 60% chance of
survival if born.
пЃ¶The fetus is considered legally viable at 28
weeks and there is a 90% chance of survival
if born at this point.
Week 25 thru 28
Weeks 29 - 32
пЃ¶There is a rapid increase in the amount of
body fat the fetus has.
пЃ¶Rhythmic breathing occurs, but the lungs
are not yet mature.
пЃ¶The fetus sleeps 90-95% of the day.
пЃ¶At this point there the survival rate is above
95% if the baby is born.
Weeks 29-32
Week 38-40
пЃ¶ The fetus is considered full-term.
пЃ¶ Lanugo is gone except on upper arms and
shoulders.
 Hair on the baby’s head is now coarser and
thicker.
пЃ¶ The lungs are mature.
пЃ¶ The average weight of the baby at this point is
seven and a half pounds.
пЃ¶ Breathing will trigger changes in the heart and
bypass arteries forcing all blood to now travel
through the lungs.
пЃ¶ At 36 to 40 weeks the head will probably descend
into the pelvis
Birth
Most traumatic experience one goes
through
Pregnancy Quiz
1)
Five weeks into your pregnancy, your baby is the size
of a:
a) Grain of sand
b) Raisin
c) Grape
2) The notochord, which appears in the Sixth week, is:
a) A collection of nerves, which will eventually become
the baby's limbs
b) A rod of cells, which will eventually become the
baby's spine
c) The neuro center, which will eventually become the
baby's brain
3) Your baby's fingers and toes are visible at:
a) 10 weeks
b) 6 weeks
c) 8 weeks
Pregnancy Quiz
4)
At 16 weeks, your baby is growing rapidly, and can
fit inside a:
a)
b)
c)
5)
The uterus expands throughout pregnancy, but the
increase is not usually visible until the:
a)
b)
c)
6)
Teacup
Thimble
Breadbox
Fourth month
Second month
Sixth month
Your baby may be sucking her thumb at:
a)
b)
c)
18 weeks
20 weeks
22 weeks
Pregnancy Quiz
7)
Vernix, which covers the baby at six months, is:
a) The fine down which eventually becomes the baby's hair
and lashes
b) A creamy substance which protects the baby's skin from
becoming waterlogged
c) The nutrients in the amniotic fluid that provide
nourishment to the baby
8) At 24 weeks, you may notice that your baby responds to:
a) Sunlight
b) Strong odors
c) Loud noises and music
9) Your baby's head will probably descend into the pelvis
between:
a) 30-35 weeks
b) 26-30 weeks
c) 36-40 weeks
Pregnancy Quiz
10) The baby breathes inside you by:
a) Taking oxygen from your blood and passing
back carbon dioxide
b) Taking carbon dioxide from your blood and
passing back oxygen
c) Making breathing movements
Pregnancy Quiz Answers
1. Grain of sand
2. A rod of cell’s which will eventually become the
baby’s spine
3. 8 weeks
4. Teacup
5. Fourth month
6. 20 weeks
7. A creamy substance which protects the babies skin
from becoming waterlogged
8. Loud noises and music
9. 36-40 weeks
10.Taking oxygen from your blood and passing back
carbon dioxide
Work Cited
• http://www.answers.com/topic/umbilical-cord
• http://parenting.ivillage.com/pregnancy/pfitness
/topics/0,,4rqn,00.html
• http://www.nrlc.org/abortion/facts/fetaldevelop
ment.html
• http://www.wprc.org/parenting/fetaldevelopment/third-trimester
• http://www.americanbaby.com/ab/category.jhtm
l?categoryid=/templatedata/ab/category/data/fet
aldev_0.xml
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