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Birth control: hormonal methods

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Birth control: hormonal
methods
Maša Vikić-Topić
Mentor: A. ЕЅmegaДЌ Horvat
Introduction
• Oral hormones: the pill
• Morning-after pill
• Injection: depot
medroxyprogesterone acetate
(DMPA)
• Contraceptive patch
• Vaginal ring
• Contraceptive
implants
• Because of many side-effects, OCP can be
bought only with a doctor’s prescription.
• OCP is effective on some animals.
• Because of its simple use, OCP were easily
introduced in many parts of the world.
• The first OCP were made out of wild yam root.
• If pregnancy occurs under OCP, there is a
higher risk of multiple pregnancies.
Oral contraceptive pills (OCP)
• Oral contraceptive
made from synthetic
hormones
• 97%-99% effective
• Combined pill or minipill
Combined pill
• Contains estrogen and
progestin
• 21-day or 28-day form
• Monophasic or
multiphasic (fewer side
effects)
• Effect: ova do not mature
so there is no ovulation
Mini-pill
• Contains only progestin
• Used continuously 28
days
• Effect: thickens the
cervical mucus and
makes the lining of the
uterus less receptive to
implantation
• Indicated because of
medical reasons and
women breatsfeeding
Contraindications
• Absolute: CV diseases, liver
damage, hormone-dependent
tumors
• Relative: age >35 + another risk
factor (smoking, DM etc.)
Pro’s
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
↓ Dysmenorrhea
↓ Ovarian carcinoma
↓ Endometrial carcinoma
↓ Ovarian cysts
↓ Breast cysts
↓ PID
↓ Risk of ectopic
pregnancy
↓ Anemia
↓ Acne
↓ Hair growth
↓ Osteoporosis
Con’s
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
↑ Risk of CV disease
↑ Risk of breast cancer
↑ Risk of cervical cancer
↑ Risk of thromboembolic
episodes
↑ Risk of liver adenoma
Lipid metabolism disorders
Nausea
Depression
Post-pill amenorrhea
Weight gain
Breast tenderness
Morning-after pill
• Contains a progestin or a
progesterone agonistantagonist
• Effect: prevents or delays
ovulation, blocks fertilization,
or keeps a fertilized egg from
implanting in the uterus
• Application: oral, up to 107 to
120 hours after intercourse
• Side effects:
nausea,abdominal pain,
fatigue, headache, dizziness,
and breast tenderness
Injection depot DMPA
• Synthetic long-acting form of
the hormone progesterone
• Effect: prevents the release of
the ova from the ovary
(ovulation); promotes thick
cervical mucus
• Application: injected every
three months (12 weeks)
• Side effects: irregular
menstrual cycles, cessation of
menstrual periods, weight gain
• Con: long time before
pregnancy can occur
Contraceptive patch
•
•
•
•
•
Transdermal delivery system
Effect: same as OCP
Application: stuck on skin every week
Side effects: same as OCP, greater risk (con)
Pro: better compliance
Vaginal ring
• Device that contains
combined hormones
• Effect: same as OCP
• Application: placed
in the vagina for 3
weeks
• Side effects: same
as OCP + increased
vaginal discharge
Contraceptive implants
• Slow release of a progestin
over a period of three
years
• Effect: prevents the
release of the egg from the
ovary (ovulation); promotes
thick cervical mucus
• Application: inserted in
the upper arm under local
anesthesia
• Side effects: irregular
bleeding
• Pro: fertility rapidly returns
THANK YOU пЃЉ
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