V.V. Nalimov and Russian scientometrics: the history and the present пЃ® Granovsky Yu.V., Drogalina J.A., Markova Ye.V. пЃ® Moscow State University пЃ® ZPCH@rambler.ru Nalimov - october 2013 1 Professor V.V. Nalimov (1910-1997) Nalimov - october 2013 2 Professor V.V. Nalimov (1910-1997) A bit of V.V. Nalimov Biography пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Father вЂ“ Nalimov V.P., Ugro-Finnish by birth, ethnographer, a professor of anthropology in Moscow State University,maintained a wide range of interests in the sciences and humanities, died in the GulagвЂ™s prison in 1939. Mother вЂ“ Nalimova N.I., a dedicated surgeon was mobilized to the Red Army in the Civil War, died working as a physician in a military hospital in the typhus epidemic in 1919. In 1929-1931 V.V. Nalimov - a student of the Physical- Mathematical Department of Moscow State University. He did not graduate from the university due to the political conflict with Komsomol Organization of the Department. Nalimov - october 2013 4 A bit of V.V. Nalimov Biography пЃ® In 1931-1936 V.V. Nalimov worked at the All-Union Electro-Technical Institute and then at the Institute of Control and Measuring Devices, where he performed studies in the photoelectric effects. The first paper he published in 1933. In 1936 Nalimov was arrested and sentenced to five years imprisonment in GULAG. Only in 1953 he was released and returned to Moscow to join VINITY , the AllвЂ“Union Institute for Scientific and Technical Information of the Academy of Sciences, as a branch editor of an abstract journal in physics. He wrote his first book вЂњThe application of Mathematical Statistics to Chemical AnalysisвЂќ. Published in Russian in 1960, it appeared both in England and the US in 1963, translated into English. At that time he got interested in cybernetics, and in 1959 published his first scientometric article вЂњScientific and technical information as one of the tasks of cyberneticsвЂќ (co-authors N.I. Styazhkin and G.E. Vleduts). Nalimov - october 2013 5 A bit of V.V. Nalimov Biography пЃ® пЃ® The article put forward an original logical justification of the examined mathematical models for the growth of science. In 1959 Nalimov got an appointment at the State Institute of Rare Metals, where he continued his investigations into mathematical statistics and the theory of experimental design along with a mathematical group he organized there. In 1965 he returned to Moscow State University to join the new Interfaculty Laboratory of Statistical Methods headed by the famous Soviet mathematician A.N. Kolmogorov. Awarded the title of professor , Nalimov held the Chair of Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics. Nalimov - october 2013 6 Along the Way of Scientometrics пЃ® In summer of 1966 in LвЂ™vov was held the SovietPolish Symposium, where V.V. Nalimov gave a talk on the mathematical modeling of processes in science. He was the one who coined the term В«scientometricsВ» for the new scope of inquiry . The term has been adopted by the journal Scientometrics founded in 1978 by Tibor Braun. Later this year Nalimov published the article Quantitative methods of research in the science development, where he extended principles formulated in his earlier works. By that time V.V. Nalimov has already gathered around him an informal scientometrical group. Nalimov - october 2013 7 Along the Way of Scietometrics пЃ® By the close of 1967 the authors from the invisible college published a paper dealing with the study of journals as communication channels, and contributions of certain countries to the global information flow. It contained a precise description of the information model of science development, where journals were regarded as communication channels, and the system of bibliographic references as a special language of scientific information indicating the publication influence on the development of global information flows. Nalimov - october 2013 8 Along the Way of Scietometrics пЃ® The year 1969 was marked by the publication of the book: V.V. Nalimov, Z.M. Mulchenko: Scientometrics. The study of science as an information process. It was the first full monograph on quantitative methods for the study of science. This proved to be the theoretical foundation for the work of many other scholars studying the structure of scientific research. Its main subjects embraced science citation indices, information systems based on the language of bibliographic references and the study of internal relation in science based on the language of bibliographic references (the latter relates to the historical analysis of the development of scientific trends). Nalimov - october 2013 9 Along the Way of Scietometrics пЃ® пЃ® There also discussed the study of the internal structure of a research front, the example of a detailed statistical analysis of a scientific trend, and logical analysis of the forecast problem. Concluding remarks indicated the necessity of creating a special information center for the statistical study of science, being managed through the use of scientometric data. Nalimov - october 2013 10 Along the Way of Scietometrics пЃ® пЃ® V.V. Nalimov went on with his research and in the beginning of вЂ¦ ? published several papers dealing with the comparison of science and biosphere, geographical distribution of scientific information and change in the requirement of intellectuals. In 1980 he accepted the offer to become a Consulting Editor of the journal Scientometrics. In 1987 Nalimov was awarded the biennial Derek de Solla Price medal conferred by the Editorial Advisory Board of the journal Scientometrics for outstanding achievements in scientometrics. Nalimov - october 2013 11 V.V. Nalimov with the Derek J. De Solla Price Medal Nalimov - october 2013 12 Nalimov`s program of scientometricsвЂ™ development in Russia пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® 1) To set up an information center for regular science development tracking (based on the statistical analysis of information streams) and scientometrics research coordination. 2) To bring in the main subjects of the science of science on the higher school programs. 3) To create the Russian Index of scientific citing. 4) To set up the home scientometricsвЂ™ journal. 5) To hold regular seminars and conferences on scientometrics. 6) To estimate significance of home scientific issues on the base of scientometric rating. Nalimov`s program of scientometricsвЂ™ development in Russia пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® 1) To set up an information center for regular science development tracking (based on the statistical analysis of information streams) and scientometricsвЂ™research coordination. Implementation: About 40 organizations dealing with the science of science and scientometrics came into existence. But there never appeared a structure similar to the USA Institute for scientific information. Nalimov - october 2013 14 Nalimov`s program of scientometricsвЂ™ development in Russia пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® 2) To bring in the main subjects of science of science on the higher school programs. Implementation: The Russian Federation ministry of education and science recommended use of scientometric indicators for evaluation of organizationsвЂ™ research activities. It naturally requires special training to promote the result. Nalimov - october 2013 15 Nalimov`s program of scientometricsвЂ™ development in Russia пЃ® пЃ® 3) To create the Russian Index of scientific citing. Implementation: This V.V. NalimovвЂ™s proposal was realized only to some extent. The Russian SCI is being under creation since 2005. Now its citation information comes from publications out of more than 3500 Russian journals. Monographs, manuals, patents and theses are also included. Though the Web of Science database covers only 10% of Russian publications. Nalimov`s program of scientometricsвЂ™ development in Russia пЃ® пЃ® 4) To set up the home scientometricsвЂ™ journal. Implementation: This journal has never appeared. Though scientometric articles were accepted by the journals concerned with the science of science, such ones as The Messenger of the Russian Academy Science and Higher School (launched in 1992), and the Russian academic journal Science of Science , (issued since 1999). Nalimov`s program of scientometricsвЂ™ development in Russia пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® 5) To hold regular seminars and conferences on the problems of scientometrics. Implementation: There is one regular seminar on the science of science at the Institute of scientific information for social sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 2008 and 2010 there held conferences on the science of science problems, and the next one, scheduled on 2012, was never organized. Nalimov`s program of scientometricsвЂ™ development in Russia пЃ® 6) To estimate significance of home scientific issues on the base of scientometric rating. Derek de Solla Price and Vassily Nalimov in Moscow State University, 1971 Garfield Eu. 2011. Historiographic analysis of the impact of V.V. Nalimov on the occasion of his 100th birthday. Р’Р°СЃРёР»РёР№ Р’Р°СЃРёР»СЊРµРІРёС‡ РќР°Р»РёРјРѕРІ вЂ“ РјР°С‚РµРјР°С‚РёРє Рё С„РёР»РѕСЃРѕС„ (Рє 100-Р»РµС‚РёСЋ СЃРѕ РґРЅСЏ СЂРѕР¶РґРµРЅРёСЏ). Рњ.: РњРђРљРЎ РџСЂРµСЃСЃ, 391 СЃ. пЃ® пЃ® В«In closing I would simply mention that Nalimov and I probably brushed shoulders when I visited VINITI in 1961 during the time of the International Congress of Biochemistry. George E. Vladutz was in the audience as well. Then when I returned to the Moscow Book Fair from 1965 to 1977 we were able to meet and talk. These discussions led to the translation and publication by ISI Press of four of his books. During those interim years I was able to help him find a huge range of books which he rapidly absorbed. I think I took greater satisfaction in being able to do this for one of the few geniuses I have encountered in my lifetimeВ» (p. 307).