Power Approach -- Neustadt Defining power вЂ“ the вЂњclerkshipвЂќ of presidential power. "The conditions that promote his leadership in form, preclude a guarantee of leadership in fact." Command вЂ“ the limitations of unilateral presidential power. Not a very effective way for presidents to operate because five conditions have to be in place: direct order, clarity, publicity, ability to carry it out, and authority to do it. Power approach, cont. пЃ¬ Persuasion вЂ“ the core of presidential power. Separate institutions sharing powers. Successful uses of presidential power donвЂ™t come from the Constitution, but from the ability of the president to persuade. Logic doesnвЂ™t work: have to make others think it is in their interest to do what the president wants, not because it is in the presidentвЂ™s interest. The вЂњTom SawyerвЂќ theory of presidential leadership. Power approach, cont. Professional reputation вЂ“ the PresidentвЂ™s standing вЂњinside the Beltway.вЂќ Influence will depend on the appraisals of those who would be influenced Public prestige вЂ“ the PresidentвЂ™s standing in the public (Gallup approval numbers). вЂњApprove of the job the president is doing.вЂќ Personal component to this: is it support of the president as an individual? Or more the office? Also, separate the personal from job performance evaluation? Presidential Approval Ratings 1946-2004 100 90 80 Bush 41* LBJ Truman Ford Reagan 70 60 50 40 30 20 Ike Bush 43* JFK Nixon Carter Clinton 10 0 1946 1949 1952 1954 1957 1960 1963 1965 1968 1971 1974 1976 1979 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1995 2000 July 2004 Power approach, cont. Interaction between reputation and prestige. Making right choices. How to do it: guard power prospects, protect against unrealistic expectations and hopes, has to be his own director of central intelligence (not literally) Examples вЂ“ Clinton and gays in the military. DidnвЂ™t think about the long-term power stakes. Bush and post-war planning attempt to reform Social Security. Critiques of the Power approach Alternative goals: presidents have pursued goals that are not consistent with the power motivation. Moral leadership, accountability instead of вЂњprotecting power stakesвЂќ (вЂњthe buck stop hereвЂќ). Alternative sources of influence: Legitimacy and loyalty can be important in addition to prestige, reputation, and legal authority. Methodological вЂ“ only supports with anecdotes. Ken MayerвЂ™s work on executive orders. Also, approach only makes sense if presidents are trying to influence others. May use confrontation. Critiques of the Power approach, cont. Prescriptive: As practical advice to pres., how does it stack up? Can lead to "overload and breakdown." Normative: what power ought to be or what it is? Have to ask what power is being used for. Modification of the critique вЂ“ not wrong so much as incomplete. Presidential power also varies by decision-making situation and substantive policy type. Alternative interpretations of presidential power: charismatic leadership (Max Weber). Rational Choice Approach Assumptions of the rational choice approach a. Goal directed behavior, consistency, maximize expected value. b. Complete versus incomplete information. c. Explain collective action by looking at the maximizing behavior of individuals. Does this approach make more sense to apply at the mass level or elite level (for example, to study presidents)? Rational Choice, cont. Applied to other areas of politics a. Social choice / ArrowвЂ™s paradox b. Collective Action Apply to the Presidency a. Basic decision theory b. Game theory Approach may be used to formulate hypotheses that can be tested across a variety of issues and presidents. Allows broader generalizations. Rational Choice, cont. New Institutionalism: the politics of structural choice (Moe): uncertainty, political compromise, and the fear of the state. Importance of public authority, Creates conditions under which it is much more difficult for the president to lead. Response of president: politicize and centralize authority within the White House. Can lead to things like the Iran/Contra affair in the Reagan administration. Also, intelligence failures in the buildup to the war in Iraq.