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West Nile Virus

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AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE
PERCEPTIONS, PREVENTIONS
STRATEGIES, TREATMENT AND
ECONOMIC IMPACT OF EQUINE WEST
NILE VIRUS
R. GALVAN, A. Rene, S. Bae, K. Singh
BACKGROUND
West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle
Source: Pennsylvania State University, 2002
пЃ®1999 Coverage
пЃ®1999 Coverage
пЃ®2000 Coverage
пЃ®1999 Coverage
пЃ®2000 Coverage
пЃ®2001 Coverage
WNV 1999 - 2002
пЃ®1999 Coverage
пЃ®2000 Coverage
пЃ®2001 Coverage
пЃ®2002 Coverage
PURPOSE
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The purpose of this study is to focus on
gathering information regarding the
perception, knowledge, concerns and
treatment of the WNV among Texas
Veterinarians
To determine the economic impact of the
WNV on the equine population in Texas
No other study regarding equine WNV has
been undertaken in the State of Texas
Epidemiology of West Nile Virus
пЃ®
Horses are affected by WNV more
than other animals
Annual Summary of WNV
Cases
2002 %
2003
%
Bird
519
19.4
534
19.4
Human
202
7.5
437
15.9
Mosquito
260
9.7
1058
38.4
Horse
1699
63.4
717
26.0
Other
0
0
11
0.4
TOTAL
2680
Source: Texas Department of Health, Zoonosis Control Division 2004
2757
Equine Population in Texas
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Home to over 1 million horses
280,000+ horse owners
$13 billion invested in horse industry
(barns, vehicles etc.)
Texas horses valued at $4.2 billion
Horse industry impact to Texas
economy is $11 billion per year
Source :Texas A&M University; Animal Science 1998
Economic Impact:
WNV and Equines
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Colorado and Nebraska Equine Study
Estimates of $163,000 lost revenue
Estimates of $600,000 due to deaths
(estimates for 1478 equines)
Cost of vaccination vs. effectiveness in
equine population
Colorado/Nebraska $2.75 million on
prevention
Further studies need to be conducted for
clarity
Source: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 2003 (www.aphis.usda.gov)
Research Methods
Study Purpose
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пЃ®
пЃ®
Collect data on cases of West Nile Virus
(WNV)
Collect information regarding the
knowledge, concerns and treatment WNV
by veterinarians in Texas
Estimate the economic impact of WNV on
the equine population in Texas
Hypotheses
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Veterinarians who have treated West Nile
Virus have the same perceptions,
understanding and awareness as the
Veterinarians who have not treated West
Nile Virus
There is no difference among
Veterinarians that recommend different
treatment regimens with respect to
perceptions of the West Nile Virus
Hypotheses
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There is no difference among
Veterinarians that recommend different
treatment regimens with respect to
recommendations on mosquito mitigation
of West Nile Virus
There is no difference among
Veterinarians that recommend different
treatment regimens with respect to
recommendations on prevention strategies
for West Nile Virus
Survey Design
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пЃ®
Tools used in the development of the
survey
Instrument
2002 Veterinarian Survey
West Nile Survey
Survey included
13 close-ended questions and 1 openended question
Data Collection
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4,177 total surveys were sent out
Two options were given for survey
response
Online response
Paper survey response
Data Entry
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A numbering system was created to
distinguish between surveys entered
manually and online by the
respondent
700 surveys were completed
Data Analysis
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Descriptive Analyses
Summations
Frequencies
Cross-tabulations
Results
Results
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700 Surveys were returned
684 were mailed in (98%)
16 were completed online (2%)
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Response rate of 16.8%
73.4% of respondents believed they were
knowledgeable about WNV
I am Knowledgeable about WNV
60
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
Strongly agree
Neutral
Agree
Responses
Strongly Disagree
Disagree
49.7% of respondents believed they are
receiving enough education and training
Veterinarians get Enough WNV Education
50
40
30
Percent
20
10
0
Strongly agree
Neutral
Agree
Responses
Strongly Disagree
Disagree
56.1% of respondents believed a
vaccination regimen is effective and reliable
The Vaccination Regimen is Effective
400
300
100
D
e
re
ag
is
e
re
ag
is
ly
ng
ro
St
D
l
tra
eu
q3
N
e
re re e
Ag a g
ly
ng
ro
St
0
ng
si
is
m
Frequency
200
Logistic Regression
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Veterinarians that did not treat for WNV
were 95% less likely to agree that they
were knowledgeable about WNV
Veterinarians that did not treat for WNV
were 82% less likely to agree that
Veterinarians were receiving enough
training
Eighty percent (80%) of practicing
Veterinarians that did not treat horses for
WNV did not agree that the treatment
regimen for WNV was effective and
reliable
Results
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Respondents reported 2022 cases of
WNV
1256 were laboratory confirmed
766 were not confirmed by laboratory
testing
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441 horses died
418 by euthanasia
23 as a direct result of the disease
Criteria for Euthanasia
100
80
60
40
20
No
er
th
O
n
tio
ul c y
n
so
Re mbe
cu
Re
Criterion
d
ge
on
ol
Pr
st
Co
fe
Li
of
d
ve
ei
lity
ua
Q
rc
Pe
0
48% of respondents recommend prevention
strategies for equine owners
Recommend Prevention Strategies
yes
48.0%
no
52.0%
38.8% of the respondents recommended
control strategies to equine owners
Recommend Control Strategies
yes
38.8%
no
61.2%
Results of Cross-Tabulation
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400
300
200
100
Treated for WNV
Did Not Treat
0
Did Treat
Neutral
SA/Agree
Responses to Question 1
SDA/Disagree
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97.2% of
respondents who
treated WNV
agree that they are
knowledgeable
about WNV
65.5% of
respondents who
did not treat agree
Results of Cross-Tabulation
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пЃ®
78.4 % of veterinarians who treated
WNV believe they are receiving
enough education/training
Only 40.1 % of veterinarians who did
not treat believe they are receiving
enough education/training
Results of Cross-Tabulation
пЃ®
81.8 % of
veterinarians who
treated WNV
believe the vaccine
is effective and
reliable compared
to 47.5 % of those
who did not treat
WNV
300
200
100
Treated for WNV
Did Treat
0
Did Not Treat
Neutral
SA/Agree
Responses to Question 3
SDA/Disagree
Cost of vaccination regimen for equine
WNV
Cost of Vaccination Regimen
50
40
30
20
P e rce n t
10
0
$25 or less
Cost
$25-$50
$51-$100
$101 or greater
Results
пЃ®
Anti-inflammatory drugs were the main type of
treatment used in all stages of WNV
63.4% for mild WNV
57.76% for moderate WNV
44.2% for severe WNV
пЃ®
Other treatments reported for all stages of WNV
included
antibiotics
fluids
steroids
Implications of Results
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Equine WNV case fatality rate of
40.0%
Need for equine WNV education
among veterinarians
Future research may include
knowledge/beliefs of equine owners
Implications of Results
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Estimated Economic Impact
Equine WNV fatalities2002 - $2,856,000
2003 - $1,205,400
average purchase price of horse пѓЏ total number of horses lost
due to WNV
Vaccination against equine WNV2002 - $6,250,000
2003 - $6,250,000
average cost of vaccination for equine WNV пѓЏ 25% of the
equine population in Texas
Implications of Results
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Estimated Combined Economic
Impact for 2002-2003
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2002- $9,106,000
2003 - $7,455,400
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Total - 16,561,400
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Discussion
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Understanding the effects and treatment
of the WNV is essential
More WNV research and education is
needed
This study can be used as a benchmark in
future WNV studies
Additional WNV education is needed
among Veterinarians in areas of
prevention strategies, control and
treatment.
Discussion
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Less than one half of the
Veterinarians who have treated WNV
believed they were receiving enough
education on the disease
One half of the Veterinarians
recommended prevention strategies
One half of the Veterinarians
believed the vaccination regimen was
effective
Discussion
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пЃ®
The economic impact to horse
owners in 2002 was estimated at
$9,106,000
The economic impact to horse
owners for 2003 was estimated at
$7,455,400
Limitations of Study
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Information in surveys is selfreported but still an effective method
Values given for number of cases in
the survey were ranges
Full economic impact of equine WNV
could not be determined
Many respondents had small animal
practices
QUESTIONS????
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