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Dengue Virus

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Dengue Virus
By: Inna Gnipp and
Hamza Iqbal
Dengue Declassified
 Family: Flaviviridae
 Genus: Flavivirus
 Species: Dengue virus
What is the Dengue Virus?
 Arbovirus
 Arthropod, Mosquito, born
 (Aedes aegypti)
 It is a pathogen that causes
 Dengue fever (DF)
 Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)
 Can lead to Dengue shock syndrome (DSS)
 Has four different serotypes (DEN-1,2,3,4)
 First reported epidemics in 1780 in Asia, Africa,
and North America
Target tissues
пѓ� Dengue induces cytokine production in cells
пѓ� Cytotoxic factor effects endothelial cells
involved in most of the following:
Lymph nodes
Skin (inflammatory rashes)
Symptoms: DHF
Muscle and joint pain
Nausea and/or Haematemesis (vomiting of blood)
Epistaxis (Bleeding from the nose, mouth, or gums)
Haematuria (Blood in Urine)
Pain behind the eyes
Plasma leakage
Respiratory distress
Petechia (Skin rash) and/or Purpura (Lesions)
Diagnostic tests
 Virus isolation by infection of mice using
infected mosquitoes
 Detection of IgM antibodies in the blood by
PCR or Viral isolation (Serology)
 ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunoabsorbent
 Thrombopenia
 Raised hematocrit
Pathogenesis and infection
process of Dengue
 Humans are initially infected through a mosquito vector
 Initial interaction with cell occurs with the viruses ability
to infect cell
 Primary target, Phagocytes
 Virus uses cell receptor molecule to enter cell
 Cell receptor molecules include:
 Glycosaminoglycan
 Heparan Sulfate (Expressed in almost all cell types)
Virus replicates in target organs
Infects white blood cells and lymphatic tissues
Virus is released and circulates in blood
Alternate mosquito then bites host and receives virus
There is no specific treatment
Relieving symptoms and
 Plasma volume replacement
 Sedatives for restless patients
 Blood transfusion with
patients with significant blood
 Aspirin should be avoided
 All efforts of control are aimed
against mosquitoes
 Elimination of breeding areas
 Actions to prevent mosquito
bites (repellant, nets, and
 Vaccinations are pending
 Problem is that the
vaccination needs to prevent
all four serotypes
 Affects humans
 Is prominent in tropical environments
 Ideal for Mosquito habitats
What is promoting the disease?
 Global warming is causing climate changes which is
causing the disease to move to more environments
 (higher altitudes and amplitudes)
 More habitats for mosquitoes to thrive in
 Spread has been increased by urbanization and
population growth
 Inability of mosquito control in countries is also a major
Morbidity and Mortality
 More than 2.5 Billion people live in areas
that have a risk of infection
 Over 100 million cases of Dengue
infection are reported each year globally
 500,000 cases pertain to DHF
 DHF has a 5% fatality rate for those
 People at high risk are children and the
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