Ebola Virus Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks пЃ¬ 1976- First Major Outbreak (ZEBOV) пЃ¬ 1976- Sudan (SEBOV) пЃ¬ Occur Sporadically пЃ¬ www.cdc.gov for more information Where does Ebola hide? пЃ¬ 2002- Fruit Bats пЃ¬ Antibodies against Ebola пЃ¬ Ebola Gene sequences in liver and spleen пЃ¬ Fruit bats do not show any symptoms пЃ¬ Best candidate to be the reservoir пЃ¬ More research needs to be done Geography пЃ¬ The link between human infection by the Ebola virus and their proximity to primates is clear. -Outbreaks occurred in countries that house 80 percent of the worldвЂ™s remaining wild gorilla and chimpanzee populations. - The outbreaks coincided with the outbreaks in wild animals. - The same distinct viral strains were isolated in animal carcasses and in the bodies of those who handled those carcasses. - These outbreaks were preceded by an abnormally large death in wild Gorilla populations. Clinical Observations пЃ¬ Incubation period: 2-21 days пЃ¬ Stage I (unspecific): -Extreme asthenia (body weakness) -diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, anorexia abdominal pain - headaches - arthralgia (neuralgic pain in joints) - myalgia (muscular pain or tenderness), back pain - mucosal redness of the oral cavity, dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) - conjunctivitis. - rash all over body except in face ** If the patients donвЂ™t recover gradually at this point, there is a high probability that the disease will progress to the second phase, resulting in complications which eventually lead to death (Mupapa et al., 1999). пЃ¬ Stage II (Specific): - Hemorrhage - neuropsychiatric abnormalities - anuria (the absence of urine formation) - hiccups - tachypnea (rapid breathing). ** Patients who progressed to phase two EHF almost always die. (Ndambi et al., 1999) пЃ¬ Late Complications: -Arthralgia - ocular diseases (ocular pain, photophobia and hyperlacrimation) - hearing loss - unilateral orchitis( inflammation of one or both of the testes) ** These conditions are usually relieved with the treatment of 1% atropine and steroids Epidemiology пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever was first found in 1976 It struck two countries within that year a. Sudan вЂ“ in a town called NвЂ™zara b. Zaire, now known as the Democratic Republic of Congo In these two instances the mortality rate was between 50 вЂ“90% Following those epidemics, Ebola hit Africa in many other instances the worst yet being in the year 2000 when it struck Uganda infecting more than 400 people. Transmission пЃ¬ contracted through contact of any infected individualвЂ™s body fluids Ebola HF prevention poster used in Kikwit outbreak. Controlling the spread of Ebola пЃ¬ a. Hospitals must follow precautionary methods, such as: 1. wearing gloves 2. isolating infected individuals 3. practicing nurse barrier techniques 4. proper sterilization and disposal of all equipment пЃ¬ b. Burials must be done correctly 1. no washing or touching carcass 2. put into body bags and bury outside city пЃ¬ c. Report any questionable illness to officials Ebola Subtypes пЃ¬ Ebola-Zaire (ZEBOV) пЃ¬ Ebola-Sudan (SEBOV) пЃ¬ Ebola Ivory-Coast (ICEBOV) пЃ¬ Ebola-Reston (REBOV) MOLECULAR STRUCTURE пЃ¬ Characterization of the virus вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ пЃ¬ Order: Mononegavirales Family: Filoviridae Genus: Ebolavirus Species: Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Cote d-Ivoire, EbolaReston Morphology under electron microscope вЂ“ вЂ“ filamentous, enveloped RNA virus approx. 19 kb in length (1 kb = 1000 RNA bases/nucleotides) or 60-80 nm in diameter вЂ“ single-stranded, linear, non-segmented вЂ“ negative-sense RNA (encoded in a 3вЂ™ to 5вЂ™ direction) вЂ“ appears to have вЂњspikesвЂќ due to glycoprotein on outside membrane пЃ¬ Structure of Ebola genome and proteins вЂ“ Transcribed into 8 sub-genomic mRNA proteins: 7 structural and 1 nonstructural вЂ“ 7 structural proteins: вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ nucleoprotein (NP) 4 viral/virion proteins (VP35, VP40, VP30, VP24) glycoprotein (GP) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein) вЂў NP, VP35, VP30, L protein: required for transcription & replication вЂў VP40, GP, VP24: associated with the membrane Proteins Ethics пЃ¬ Biogeograophical Ethics is defined as motivation based on ideas of right and wrong when dealing with the geographical distribution of animals and plants. пЃ¬ This concept of can be used to explain the worldвЂ™s shockingly small response to the Ebola Virus. пЃ¬ Because there was little travel to that region by people of more developed countries, there was not much economic drive for a vaccine, treatment, and aid in prevention. Bioterrorism пЃ¬ Since the September 11 bombings in the United States, the locality of this virus has become less isolated as the threat of bioterrorism looms large. пЃ¬ The Ebola virus is now on the вЂњAвЂќ list for hopeful vaccination development. пЃ¬ Experiments have even been formed to show how Ebola can be used as a bioterror agent.