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Ebola Virus

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Ebola Virus
Hemorrhagic Fever
Outbreaks
пЃ¬
1976- First Major
Outbreak (ZEBOV)
пЃ¬ 1976- Sudan
(SEBOV)
пЃ¬ Occur Sporadically
пЃ¬ www.cdc.gov for more
information
Where does Ebola hide?
пЃ¬
2002- Fruit Bats
пЃ¬ Antibodies against Ebola
пЃ¬ Ebola Gene sequences in
liver and spleen
пЃ¬ Fruit bats do not show any
symptoms
пЃ¬ Best candidate to be the
reservoir
пЃ¬ More research needs to be
done
Geography
пЃ¬
The link between human infection by the Ebola virus and
their proximity to primates is clear.
-Outbreaks occurred in countries that house 80 percent of
the world’s remaining wild gorilla and chimpanzee
populations.
- The outbreaks coincided with the outbreaks in wild
animals.
- The same distinct viral strains were isolated in animal
carcasses and in the bodies of those who handled those
carcasses.
- These outbreaks were preceded by an abnormally large
death in wild Gorilla populations.
Clinical Observations
пЃ¬
Incubation period: 2-21 days
пЃ¬
Stage I (unspecific):
-Extreme asthenia (body weakness)
-diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, anorexia
abdominal pain
- headaches
- arthralgia (neuralgic pain in joints)
- myalgia (muscular pain or tenderness), back pain
- mucosal redness of the oral cavity, dysphagia (difficulty in
swallowing)
- conjunctivitis.
- rash all over body except in face
** If the patients don’t recover gradually at this point, there is a high
probability that the disease will progress to the second phase, resulting in
complications which eventually lead to death (Mupapa et al., 1999).
пЃ¬
Stage II (Specific):
- Hemorrhage
- neuropsychiatric abnormalities
- anuria (the absence of urine formation)
- hiccups
- tachypnea (rapid breathing).
** Patients who progressed to phase two EHF almost always die.
(Ndambi et al., 1999)
пЃ¬
Late Complications:
-Arthralgia
- ocular diseases (ocular pain, photophobia and hyperlacrimation)
- hearing loss
- unilateral orchitis( inflammation of one or both of the testes)
** These conditions are usually relieved with the treatment of 1%
atropine and steroids
Epidemiology
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever was first found in 1976
It struck two countries within that year
a. Sudan – in a town called N’zara
b. Zaire, now known as the Democratic Republic of
Congo
In these two instances the mortality rate was between
50 –90%
Following those epidemics, Ebola hit Africa in many other
instances the worst yet being in the year 2000 when it
struck Uganda infecting more than 400 people.
Transmission
пЃ¬
contracted through contact of any infected
individual’s body fluids
Ebola HF prevention
poster used in Kikwit
outbreak.
Controlling the spread of Ebola
пЃ¬
a. Hospitals must follow precautionary methods, such as:
1. wearing gloves
2. isolating infected individuals
3. practicing nurse barrier techniques
4. proper sterilization and disposal of all equipment
пЃ¬ b. Burials must be done correctly
1. no washing or touching carcass
2. put into body bags and bury outside city
пЃ¬ c. Report any questionable illness to officials
Ebola Subtypes
пЃ¬
Ebola-Zaire
(ZEBOV)
пЃ¬ Ebola-Sudan
(SEBOV)
пЃ¬ Ebola Ivory-Coast
(ICEBOV)
пЃ¬ Ebola-Reston
(REBOV)
MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
пЃ¬
Characterization of the virus
–
–
–
–
пЃ¬
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Filoviridae
Genus: Ebolavirus
Species: Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Sudan, Ebola-Cote d-Ivoire, EbolaReston
Morphology under electron microscope
–
–
filamentous, enveloped RNA virus
approx. 19 kb in length (1 kb = 1000 RNA
bases/nucleotides) or 60-80 nm in diameter
– single-stranded, linear, non-segmented
– negative-sense RNA (encoded in a 3’ to 5’ direction)
– appears to have “spikes” due to glycoprotein on
outside membrane
пЃ¬
Structure of Ebola genome and proteins
– Transcribed into 8 sub-genomic mRNA proteins: 7
structural and 1 nonstructural
– 7 structural proteins:
–
–
–
–
nucleoprotein (NP)
4 viral/virion proteins (VP35, VP40, VP30, VP24)
glycoprotein (GP)
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein)
• NP, VP35, VP30, L protein: required for transcription &
replication
• VP40, GP, VP24: associated with the membrane
Proteins
Ethics
пЃ¬
Biogeograophical Ethics is defined as motivation
based on ideas of right and wrong when dealing
with the geographical distribution of animals and
plants.
 This concept of can be used to explain the world’s
shockingly small response to the Ebola Virus.
пЃ¬ Because there was little travel to that region by
people of more developed countries, there was not
much economic drive for a vaccine, treatment, and
aid in prevention.
Bioterrorism
пЃ¬
Since the September 11 bombings in the
United States, the locality of this virus has
become less isolated as the threat of
bioterrorism looms large.
 The Ebola virus is now on the “A” list for
hopeful vaccination development.
пЃ¬ Experiments have even been formed to show
how Ebola can be used as a bioterror agent.
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