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Техническое задание на проект

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Государственный научный центр
Научно-исследовательский институт атомных реакторов
Experience on
Fast Reactor MOX fuel dry
reprocessing for Closed
Fuel Cycle
Alexander V. Bychkov
Director
Research Institute of Atomic Reactors
Dimitrovgrad, Russia
2010
New Technological Platform
Beloyarsk 3, BN-600
Na-related topic: BN-350, BN-600 (all facilities - 140 reactor-years)
Pb-related topic: floating reactors (Pb-Bi) on nuclear submarines
Mixed uranium-plutonium fuel
SNF reprocessing
Basic paths to arrange the architecture of
Closed Fuel Cycle (CFC) with fast neutron
power units
Base for new
construction
Place of “fast
reactor” in energy
production/FC
Light-metal (Na)
Selection of
coolant
Heavy-metal (Pb)
Complementary to
VVER
“Aqueous”
Integral economics and
ecology of electric energy
production and FC
Selection of
reprocessing
technology
“Dry”
New Technological Platform
Development of prototypes of CFC infrastructure key elements in Russia
Consolidation of competence and
responsibilities for NTP
Dense fuel
Fast reactor power
unit
VVER upgrade, power
range
SNF reprocessing
unit
2014*
2014
Model of new power engineering
architecture in economic logics
Confirmation of technological readiness
for industrial scaling
BN-800 and MOX fuel
production startup
Selection of base fast reactor
technology and decision on
VVER upgrade
2017
2020
Establishment of “dense”
fuel production
2018
Construction of power
unit prototypes
2026
Startup of SNF industrial
reprocessing and RW disposal
prototype
2019
Start of research reactor MBIR
(RIAR) operation
Scaling of new
technological platform
Key technologies of the Fast Reactor closed
fuel cycle with MOX fuel (first stage)
Pyroelectrochemical reprocessing (recycling through
molten salt)
Vibropacking technology (crystalline particles with getter)
Remote controlled automated technologies for fuel pins
and fuel assembly manufacturing
Implementation Pyroprocess for BN-800 Fuel Cycle
Combination of pyroprocess and vibropacking technology is the basis
for BN-type MOX fuel production and recycling in different scenarios.
Depleted U
(oxides)
Metal Pu
(weapon)
Pu storage
(weapon or
civil)
Granulated
MOX-fuel
PuO2 (civil)
BN spent
FAs
BN Reactor
BN FAs
Pyro-process
module – MOX
production
BN
FAs
Module for
vibropacking and
assembling
MCC
RIAR
Krasnoyarsk
Dimitrovdrad
BN-800
reactor
In future (second stage):
For BN and BREST
For MOX and (U,Pu)N
On site NPP pyro-reprocessing facility
Current status of pyrochemical
development for oxide fuel
Fundamental research
Properties of U, Pu, Th, Np, Am have been studied. Knowledge of physical
chemistry and electrochemistry of basic FP is sufficient for processes
understanding and modeling. The needed research lines – study of Cm and
Tc chemistry. Development of nitride fuel recycle methods is carried out.
Development work
All technological steps and equipment have been developed for the oxide
fuel reprocessing and fabrication processes. The process was tested more
than to 7400 kg of fresh fuel for different reactors and up to 40 kg of BN350 and BOR-60 irradiated fuel. The essentials of technology have been
elaborated and feasibility study has been completed for the BN-800 largescale CFC plant. More than 45 000 fuel pins and more than 1000 FAs
Industrial implementation
As the readiness of technology is high, work is underway on industrial
implementation of U-Pu fuel. The BOR-60 operates on vi-pack fuel. The
design of the CFC facility is in progress. 30 FAs have been tested and
irradiated in BN-600. These technologies are under implementation as
basic for BN-800 industrial MOX fuel production.
Pyrochemical processes
Basic research of the molten salt systems allowed for the development
of technological processes for production of granulated uranium and
plutonium oxides and mixed uranium and plutonium oxides. A distinctive
feature of the pyrochemical technology is a possibility to perform all the
deposit production operations in one apparatus - a chloriator-electrolyzer
Pyrochemical reprocessing consists of the following main stages:
Dissolution of initial products or spent
nuclear fuel in molten salts
Recovery of crystal plutonium dioxide or
electrolytic plutonium and uranium dioxides
from the melt
Processing of the cathode deposit and
production of granulated fuel
Na3PO4
Cl2
Stirrer
Cathode
(pyrographite)
Ar (Cl2)
Cl2+O2+Ar
Cathode
Stirrer
Stirrer
pyrographite bath,
NaCl - KCl
+
UO2 +
NpO2
UO22+
Cl2+O2+Ar
Pu4+
UO2
O2
+
UO22+
MA,REE
UO2
Cl-
Pu4+
UO22+ NpO2+
PuO2
Fuel chlorination
700 оС
PuO22+
PuO2
Preliminary
electrolysis
680 оС
(MA,REE)
RW4
UO22+
Precipitation
crystallization
680 оС
Electrolysisadditional 700 оС
Melt purification
700 оС
DDP (Dimitrovgrad Dry Process) MOXPuO2 flow sheet
Cl2
Stirrer
Cathode
(pyrographite)
Na3PO4
Cl2+O2+Ar
Ar (Cl2)
Cl2+O2+Ar
Cathode
Stirrer
pyrographite bath,
NaCl -2CsCl
+
UO2 +
NpO2
UO22+
UO2
+
+
MOX
MOX
PuO2
Fuel chlorination
650 оС
MA,REE
Cl-
Pu4+
UO22+ NpO2+
Preliminary
electrolysis
630 оС
UO22+ PuO2+
UO22+
Main MOX
electrolysis
630 оС
PuO2+
Electrolysisadditional 630 оС
DDP MOXMOX flow sheet
(MA,REE)
RW4
Melt purification
6500 оС
Cl2
Stirrer
Cathode
(pyrographite)
Na3PO4
Ar (Cl2)
Cl2+O2+Ar
Cathode
Stirrer
Stirrer
pyrographite bath,
NaCl - KCl
1st salt
Cl2+O2+Ar
+
O2
UO2 +
NpO2
UO22+
Pu4+
UO2
MA,REE
UO2
Cl-
Pu4+
UO22+ NpO2+
PuO2
Fuel chlorination
700 оС
Cl2
Stirrer
+
UO22+
PuO22+
PuO2
Fast Precipitation
crystallization
680 оС
Preliminary
electrolysis
680 оС
Draft purification
from captured
salt
(MA,REE)
RW4
UO22+
Cl2+O2+Ar
Fast Electrolysis700 оС
Melt purification
700 оС
Na3PO4
Stirrer
pyrographite bath,
NaCl -2CsCl
After
accumulation of
impurities
during
some cycles
+
2nd
salt
MOX
,
2+
UO2
UO2
Pu4+
Cl2+
UO2 PuO2+
PuO2
Fuel chlorination
650 оС
Main MOX
electrolysis
630 оС
Melt purification
6500 оС
DDP Double Salt flow sheet
RIAR experience in reprocessing
of spent fuel of the BOR-60 and BN-350 reactors
Fuel type
Burn up ,%
Mass, kg
Period
Reactor
UO2
7,7
2,5
1972..1973
BOR-60
(U,Pu)O2
4,7
4,1
1991
BN-350
(U,Pu)O2
21..24
3,5
1995
BOR-60
UO2
10
5
2000
BOR-60
(U,Pu)O2
10
12
2000…2001
BOR-60
(U,Pu)O2
16
5
2004
BOR-60
One BN-600 Spent MOX fuel assembly will be reprocessed on 2011
(10% burnup, 26 kg - core, 20 kg – blanket)
Decontamination factors (DF) from main FPs
Main FPs
Fuel type
RuRh
Ce- Pr
Cs
Eu
Sb
PuO2 for BN-350 (test, 1991)
50
220
> 3000
40
200
PuO2 for BOR-60 (test, 1995)
33
40..50
4000
40..50
120
UO2 for BOR-60 (test, 2000)
> 30
~
> 4000
> 200
~
(U,Pu)O2 for BOR-60 ( test, 20 2001)
30
25
~ 10000
> 100
~
MOX-MOX reprocessing
experiments
2004
Main MOX - 3 400 g,
Pu content - 30 %wt .
Current efficiency – 35 %
2000
1st Main MOX - 3 200 g,
Pu content - 10 %wt .
Current efficiency – 15 %
Granulated MOX-Fuel
Metal content, %wt
87,75
Pyknometric density of granules, g/cm3
10,7
Bulk density of polydispersed granulate,
g/cm3
6,0
O/M ratio (oxygen ratio)
2,00+0,01
Mass fraction of process impurities, %:
chlorine – ion
0,006
carbon
0,006
Pyrochemical Wastes treatment
Na3PO4
Pyroreprocessing
Salt
purification
Radioactive Cs
Fission products
Phosphates
Waste
NdPO4
CePO4
Salt residue
NaCl
CsCl
Phosphates
Salt residue
Special features
contain fission products
Alkaline metal chlorides, high
activity, significant heat
release
Basic elements
11 wt.% Nd
4,4 wt.% Ce
81,96 wt.% CsCl
18,04 wt.% NaCl
Quantity
Evaluations by Toshiba
<0,15 kg/kg of fast reactor
SNF
<0,03 kg/kg of fast reactor
SNF
Vitrification of HLW from pyrochemical process
HLW type
Characteristic
Glass matrix type
Introduction method
Introduced waste amount, %
137Cs
7th
leaching rate as of the
day, g/cm2 * day
Thermal resistance, 0С
Radiation resistance
Phosphate
precipitate
Spent salt
electrolyte
Phosphate
precipitate + spent
salt electrolyte
Pb(PO3)2
NaPO3
NaPO3, AlF3
Al2O3
NaPO3, AlF3
Al2O3
vitrification,
Т=9500С
vitrification
without
chloride
conversion,
Т=9500С
vitrification without
chloride conversion,
Т=9500С
28
20
36
7*10-6
7*10-6
4*10-6
400
400
400
107 Gr (for and )
1018 -decay/g
Vibropacking technique
Fuel rods with granulated fuel are fabricated by vi-pack technique
according to the standard procedures (in glove boxes or hot cells) that has
been used at RIAR for 30 years.
The main advantages of the vi-pack technique and vibropacked fuel rods
are the following:
Simplicity of the process due to the reduced
number of process and control operations, that
makes the automation and remote control of the
process easier
Possibility of usage of the granulate in any form;
both in the form of a homogeneous composition
and mechanical mixture
Reduced thermo mechanical impact of vi-pack
fuel on the cladding (as compared with a
pelletized core).
More flexible requirements for the inner diameter
of the fuel rod claddings
To correct the oxygen potential in the fuel and eliminate the process impurities
effect, getter based on U metal powder is introduced into the granulated fuel
Production and testing
of vibropacked fuel rods on the basis of MOX-fuel
Number of
fuel
assemblies
Burnur,
max.%
Load,
kW/m
Temperature
, 0С
Reactor
(U, Pu)O2
Weapon
grade, power
grade
330
30,3
51,5
720
BOR-60
UO2 + PuO2
Weapon
grade, power
grade
132+20
14,8
45
705
BOR-60
(U, Pu)O2
Weapon
grade
30
10,5
46
680
BN-600
(U, Pu)O2
power grade
4
Fuel type
development of the production technique
BN-600
Results of the material science
studies of vibropacked fuel pins
Micro- and macrostructure of the cross section of the BOR-60 fuel
rod with UPuO2 fuel ( the burnup of 32% h.a.) and BN-600 fuel rod
(the burnup of 10.5 %)
Recycle of reprocessed fuel in the BOR-60
reactor in vibrocompacted mode
• Fuel UO2+PuO2 (mechanical mixture) has burn-up about
17%,
• Some fuel pins were under PIE (b.u.4,8 - 9,8 % )
• MOX reprocessed fuel used for new fuel pins production in
2002 and under irradiation in the BOR-60 from 2004 (burnup
15% )
Reprocessing Plant for Two BN-800
Other processes and fuels
which are under R&D in RIAR
Nitride fuel – recycling
by pyro-process and
simplified pelletizing
Metallic fuel (U-Pu-Zr,
U-Al, U-Be)
reprocessing
RBMK Spent Fuel
conditioning
(metallization by Li/or
electrochemical )
Different fuels/targets
with Np, Am, Cm
Treatment of nontraditional fuel (coated
particles (UN covered by
W, U-Mo alloy, UC, Pu
alloy, PuO2 etc.)
Molten salt fuel - (study
of reprocessing and MA
behavior)
Concept of the closed fuel cycle Plant
for reprocessing and production of (U,Pu)N
fuel and metallic fuel
Production of mononitride fuel from
the nitride spent fuel at the stage of
pyrochemical reprocessing
Production of mononitride fuel pellets
Fabrication of fuel rods with sublayer
on the basis of pelletized fuel
Manufacturing of the fuel assemblies
Hot cell design and infrastructure
are similar as MOX recycling Plant
Cadmium cathode
Ar
Ar
Ar
UСl3, PuCl3
Cd
Recent activity (2010-2011):
reprocessing test for (U,Pu)N fuel
and U-Pu metallic fuel irradiated in
the BOR-60 test reactor
U, Pu
Т= 450 C LiCl - KCl
Anodic basket
Spent fuel
New times consideration:
DOVITA
1992
Dry technologies
Oxide fuel with MA
Vi-pack
Integrated disposition
same site with the
reactor
TA Transmutation of
Actinides
DOVITA-2
2006-2009
Dry technologies
On-site reprocessing
Various type of fuel
with MA
Integration of MA
recycling into FR Closed
Fuel Cycle
TA - Transmutation of
Actinides
Flexibility for pyrochemical closed fuel cycle of FR
Fast reactor
Spent FAs
Dismantling &
Decladding
Spent MOX-fuel
238UO
2
powder
Pyrochemical reprocessing in chloride melt
FP
Precipitation
Electrolysis/ Precipitation
PuO2+ MA + FP
238UO
2
Conditioning in chloride melt
MA
+ MA + FP
MA
Fabrication of Vipac
MA targets
PuO2
Fabrication of
pellets and FAs
Fabrication of
Vipac FAs
FP
Waste conditioning
Waste disposal
Comparison with powder from oxalate
a
Particle image :
a) UO2 from oxalate, T=750oC;
b) PuO2 from 3LiCl-2KCl, T=450oC;
b
Fabrication of MOX and PuO2 pellets
Composition of molding powder,
wt%
Pellet density, g/cm3
100 UO2 industrial (from oxalate)
10.4
97 UO2 +3 PuO2 (from 3LiCl-2KCl)
10.6
80 UO2 +20 PuO2 (from LiCl-KCl-CsCl)
10.8
20 UO2 +80 PuO2 (from 3LiCl-2KCl)
10.6
100 PuO2 (from LiCl-KCl-CsCl)
10.3
Main goals for dry technologies
development for 2020
Development of Pyro reprocessing technologies on a semiindustrial level:
FR SNF – molten salt technologies
MOX
Mixed Nitrides
Metallic
LWR SNF – combination of fluoride volatility and molten salt
technologies
UOX
MOX
Others
So called hard-to-reprocessing SNF (test and transportation reactors)
Innovation types of fuel (IMF, MSR +++)
Demonstration of Closing of BN-800 Fuel Cycle - on a semiindustrial level
up to 30 % annual loading, i.e. up to 3,5 – 4 t of MOX SNF per Year
Testing and Demonstration of Closing FR Fuel Cycle for MA
27
Develop the Initial Data for full scale Design of Industrial Pyro
Module for FR SNF Reprocessing
3D View on MultiPhunctional Complex
28
Здание 120
Транспортный въезд
здания 120
Layout of MPC
HLW treatment
Isotopic
Production
Хозяйственные помещения
Административное здание.
Repair Zone
Deccladding
Fluoride
volatility repr.
Molten salt
reprocessing
Repair Zone
Транспортный выезд
Water
reprocessing
Транспортный въезд
29
Conclusions
Basic studies on pyrochemical processes in molten
chlorides are mainly completed
Different technological methods developed and tested
for oxide and nitride fuel reprocessing and refabrication
Pyroelectrochemical technology for production of MOX
vibropacked fuel for the BN-800 fast reactor is under
implementation in Russia. Both type of plutonium –
military and power grade civil - will be used for MOX fuel
production.
Dry technologies were choose as basic advanced
processes for the closed fuel cycle with the fast reactors
New facilities are under design and construction for
investigation and demonstration of industrial closed fuel
cycle with the fast reactors in Russia
Государственный научный центр
Научно-исследовательский институт атомных реакторов
Thank you for your attention!
Alexander Bychkov
State Scientific Centre Research Institute of Atomic Reactors
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