COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF PRESSURE EFFECTS FROM HYDROGEN EXPLOSIONS Granovskiy E.A., Lifar V.A., Skob Yu.A., Ugryumov M.L. Scientific Center of Risk Investigations “Rizikon“, Ukraine Mathematical model Computational model of gas cloud explosion Total system of the time-dependent equations describing the three-dimensional multi-component gas mixture flow a b c d f t x y z T a , u, v, w, E c v, vu, P v , vw,( E P )v d w, wu, wv, P w ,( E P )w T 2 b u, P u , uv, uw,( E P )u T 2 2 T f 0,0,g ,0,gv T The law of admixture component transfer ( Q ) ( uQ ) ( vQ ) ( wQ ) Q t x y z Q div( D gradQ) Gas mixture explosion model mass of combustible participating in burning: m QV , Qmin Q Qmax mass of combustible not participating in burning: m0 QV , Q Qmax total mixture mass in the volume where the burning process occurs: m V , Q Qmin the oxidant mass in the mixture: m m m m0 The mass concentrations of mixture components m Q m m0 Q0 m m Q 1 Q Q0 m the excess air factor in the mixture: 1 Q Q0 m 0 m 0 Q where stoichiometric number: mth 0 m In the case when 1 the thermophysical properties of the gas mixture after an explosion : 1 1 0 1Q Q0 0 1Q Q0 c C p 1 0 1Q Q0 Cp 0 1QC cp Q0Cp c Cv 1 0 1Q Q0 Cv 0 1Q Cv Q0Cv k Cp Cv In the case when 1 the thermophysical properties of the gas mixture after an explosion : 0 1 0 Q 0 1 0 Q c c C p 1 Qc C p QcC p c Cv 1 Qc Cv QcCv k Cp Cv pressure, temperature and density of gas mixture k 1 H u mth H u 1 Q Q0 mk 1 P Pa Pa V 0 QV PV T mRун m V mathematical model verification (experiments at Fraunhofer ICT) Pressure distribution in the plane XOZ near the ground (t=0.33 s) Pressure distribution in the plane XOZ near the ground (t=0. 44 s) Pressure history in the point B near the ground Pressure history in the point C near the ground Overpressure distribution in front of the shock wave (explosion of stoichiometric propane-air mixture) 1 –computational results, 2 – regressive dependence, 3 – experimental data Computation of hydrogen cloud explosion Hydrogen cloud explosion nearby residential area The distribution of the hydrogen volume concentration before a moment of explosion Pressure distribution in the planes: XOZ near the ground (a), YOZ (b) Pressure history in the points: B (a) and C (b) explosion Distant hydrogen cloud explosion pressure distribution Pressure history in the points: B (a) and C (b) explosion Distant banked explosion of hydrogen cloud hydrogen volume concentration distribution before a moment of the banked distant explosion Pressure distribution Distant partly banked explosion of hydrogen cloud hydrogen volume concentration distribution before a moment of the partly banked distant explosion Pressure distribution Distant explosion partly surrounded with higher banks hydrogen volume concentration distribution before a moment explosion pressure distribution in the planes: XOZ near the ground (a), YOZ (b) Distant hydrogen explosion with the use of bumper walls Pressure distribution in planes: XOZ near the ground (a), YOZ (b) Pressure history in a point C CONCLUSIONS The mathematical model of the gas-dynamics processes of the two-agent explosive gas mixture formation, its explosion and dispersion of the combustion materials in the open atmosphere was developed. The finite-difference approximation was developed for the case of three-dimensional system of the gas dynamics equations complemented by the mass conservation laws of the gas admixture and combustion materials. The algorithm of the computation of the thermo- physical parameters of the gas mixture resulting after instantaneous explosion taking into account the chemical interaction was developed. The verification of the mathematical model showed an acceptable accuracy in comparison with the known experimental data that allowed using it for the modeling of consequences of the possible failures at industrial objects which store and use hydrogen. The computational modeling of the gas hydrogen explosion at the fuel station was carried out. The analysis of the different ways of protecting the surrounding buildings from the shock wave destructive impact was conducted. It was revealed that the considered types of the protective installations (partial or complete banking, bumper walls) had an influence on the pressure distribution in the computation area but did not allow bringing the maximal overpressure down to the safe level. It was concluded that a bumper wall immediately in front of the protected object was one of the most effective protective installation. It is necessary to take into account a three-dimensional character of the shock wave in order to select safe dimensions of the protection zone around the hydrogen storage facilities.