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CHAPTER 15 FISH, AMPHIBIANS, AND REPTILES

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p. 394
CHAPTER 14
FISH, AMPHIBIANS, AND REPTILES
All are vertebrates and belong to the
Phylum Chordata
“chordates”
To be a chordate,
certain
characteristics must
be present at
sometime during its
life.
1) Notochord (p.395)
- a rod-like piece of cartilage
that runs along the dorsal side.
- it is present in
humans during
early development.
- it turns into the
backbone.
- some have a notochord their
entire life. (not vertebrates).
Example 1: tunicate
Example 2: lancelet
2) nerve chord
- turns into the
spinal cord.
- carries messages
from the brain.
3) gill slits
(pharanygeal
pouches)
- openings in the throat
area.
- found in all
vertebrates during the
embryo stage.
- turns into lungs.
All vertebrates have an endoskeleton.
Most vertebrates are ectotherms.
- “cold-blooded”
- their temperature
changes with the
environment.
Endotherms maintain a constant
temperature.
- “warm-blooded”
FISH
- 30,000 different
species.
- three classes.
1) Class Agnatha
“jawless
fish”
- simplest vertebrates.
p. 402
- no jaw - has a
�sucker’ mouth.
- it sucks the fluids
out of its host.
-their skeletons are made of cartilage
- no real bones - very flexible.
Ex. Lampreys
- attack healthy
fish.
- live in the Great
Lakes (invasive
species).
Ex. Hagfish (p. 402)
- attacks dying or dead
fish.
2) Class Chondrichthyes (p. 402)
- are the
cartilaginous fish.
Ex. sharks, rays,
skates.
- have skeletons
made of cartilage.
They have traits of �advanced’ fish.
- scales
- sharp and pointy.
- not round.
- �hydrodynamic’
- jaws
- can �unhinge’.
Sharks
- most are not
dangerous but are
efficient predators.
- replaceable
teeth that slant
inwards.
- sense of smell
Largest =
Whale shark
(45 feet long)
�Meanest’ =
Great White
- sharks can reproduce sexually in three
different ways.
1) young are born
�live’.
2) lays eggs
3) eggs �hatch’ inside the
female.
More sharks…
Thresher Shark
Basking Shark
Goblin Shark
Sawtooth Shark
More Cartilage Fish
Manta Ray
Skate
North Dakota Chondrichthyes
Paddlefish
Sturgeon
3) Class Osteichthyes
- largest class of
fish. (95%)
Three groups:
1) lung fish
- have simple
lungs and gills.
ex. African
lungfish
“bony fish”
2) lobe-finned
- fins attach to
the skeleton.
Ex. coelacanth
3) ray-finned
- paired fins with
long bony spines.
- largest group.
Ex. walleye, perch,
salmon.
ASSIGNMENT:
WORKSHEET
�FISH’
Features of a Bony Fish
lateral line
- runs along the side of the fish.
- can sense vibrations and electrical
currents.
gills
- water passes over the gills and they
extract oxygen.
- release CO2
- many tiny blood vessels.
operculum
- a bony plate which
covers the gills.
swim bladder
- controls buoyancy.
- fills with air to rise.
- no eyelids!
- two chambered
heart.
- reproduces
sexually.
- nostrils
- a strong sense
of smell.
- have a complete digestive system.
- stomach, liver, intestines…
WHICH CLASS OF FISH?
Manta
Class Chondrichthyes
Lamprey
Class Agnatha
Northern
Class Osteichthyes
READ “Origins of Fish” p. 406
ASSIGNMENT
WORKSHEET:
“GO FISH”
Class Amphibia “Amphibians” p. 407
Ex. frogs, toads
2,500 different
species.
Amphibians must live near water.
- keep skin moist.
- to reproduce
(lay eggs)
Many amphibians in Minnesota have
been found with deformities in recent
years.
- linked to the use
of pesticides.
- can easily be
absorbed thru
their skin.
Amphibians are ectothermic.
- during winter months they become
inactive
- slowed metabolism.
- called hibernation.
- some become inactive when
temperatures are too hot or when
water is scarce.
- bury themselves
underground.
- called estivation.
Amphibians need a strong
endoskeleton to support their body
while on land.
- they have a three chambered
heart.
Frogs
(p. 409)
- have lungs but can stay under for long
periods of time.
- can absorb oxygen through their skin.
- have hinged joints
- reproduce
sexually
- lay eggs in
water.
Hundreds of different species
and sizes
- colors are often
“bright”
-poisonous
Toads
- can spend more time
out of the water.
- skin is �bumpier’
- doesn’t dry out.
- but must return to
water to reproduce.
Salamanders
- often confused
with lizards.
- smooth skin
(no scales).
- amphib with a
tail.
Caecilians
- a legless, blind
amphibian
found in rain
forests
AMPHIBIAN METAMORPHOSIS
p. 412
- the change in form from egg to adult.
egg
tadpole
- have gills
- must stay in water.
- develops legs.
- tail is absorbed.
- begins eating insects
- protein speeds up the
process.
adult
Usually takes 4 - 6 weeks.
- warm water and
plenty of food will
increase the
speed of
metamorphosis.
- but can take
years…
ASSIGNMENT
WORKSHEET:
�AMPHIBIANS’
Class Reptilia
�Reptiles’ p. 412
Ex. turtle, snakes,
alligator.
- they do not have to
return to water.
1) scales
- keep moisture
in.
2) hard shell - amniotic egg
- more durable.
All* reptiles have claws.
Reptiles have a three chambered
heart.
- provides more oxygen to the
body.
- have lungs
- are land
organisms.
READ �Importance
and Origin of
Reptiles’ (p. 417).
Lizards
- most are small.
- but the Komodo Dragon can be 10 feet
long.
- most lizards are
harmless.
- many eat insects.
- some are
venomous.
More lizards…
Gila Monster
Fringed Lizard
Gecko
Zebra Lizard
Alligators
Snakes
- reptiles without
legs.
- can unhinge their
jaw.
- to swallow
large prey.
- some are venomous.
Rattlesnake
Coral Snake
Some reptiles have shown
maternal care.
- the mother
protects the eggs
and the young
after they hatch.
Reptiles are more advanced and
survivable than amphibians.
- water is the greatest limiting factor.
ASSIGNMENT:
WORKSHEET
�ECTOTHERM REVIEW’
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