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FISH - PDST

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F
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S
H
В© PDST Home Economics
Fish
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Many different types of
fish
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Many different ways of
cooking fish
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Cooks quickly …saves fuel
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Very nutritious …healthy
substitute for meat
Uses
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Main course breakfast e.g. kippers, kedgeree
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Starter at dinner e.g. prawn cocktail, smoked salmon,
chowder, mussels, crabs claws.
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Main course at dinner e.g. fish pie, grilled mackerel,
salmon steak.
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Sandwiches e.g. tuna, salmon, sardines.
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Snacks e.g. smoked salmon on crackers, prawns and
crackers.
Classification of fish
Ways to classify fish
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Fresh water, Salt water
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Demersal (bottom), Pelagic (top)
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Flat, Round
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White, Oily, Shell
Classification of Fish
White
Oily
Shell
Cod
Herring
Mussels
Haddock
Mackerel
Prawns
Whiting
Salmon
Lobster
Sole
Tuna
Crab
Plaice
Sardines
Oysters
White
Fish
Oily
Fish
Tuna
Shell Fish
Molluscs and
Crustaceans
Average % Composition
Protein Fat
White
Fish
1720%
17Oily Fish 20%
Shell
Fish
Breaded
Plaice
1720%
0%
13%
3%
Carb
0%
0%
0%
Vits.
Mins.
Water
B
1%
Iodine
80%
BAD
1%
Iodine
65%
B
2%
Iodine
75%
Calcium
13%
9%
16%
B
1%
Iodine
60%
Nutritive Value
Protein: good source, HBV, growth and repair of cells
пѓ� Fat: none in white fish, unsaturated fat in oily fish
including omega 3 oils, for energy, prevents heart disease.
пѓ� Carbs.: none, serve with carbs. e.g. rice.
пѓ� Vitamins: White & Shell, Vit B only, nerves and energy.
Oily Fish, Vit B, Vit D (Bones and teeth) and Vit A (eyes,
skin, growth, membranes).
пѓ� Minerals: Iodine for the thyroid gland in all, calcium for
bones in shell fish only.
пѓ� Water: white fish has most water and no fat therefore
lowest in calories.
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Value of Fish in the diet
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пѓ�
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Important source of protein for those growing.
Unsaturated fat and omega 3 suitable for people with
heart disease.
White fish, no fat, suitable for people on low fat or low
calorie diets
Many varieties, many different uses.
Some fish are cheap yet nutritious e.g. herring for those
on low income
Available fresh, frozen, canned, in prepared meals, no
seasonal restriction.
Quick to cook saves fuel
In Season
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Some fish are in season at
certain times of the year…
better flavour and cheaper
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e.g. Cod season = Sept to March.
Buying Fresh Fish
Clean reliable shop
пѓ� Seaweedy fresh smell
пѓ� Skin, moist, unbroken
пѓ� Plenty of scales
пѓ� Eyes, bright and bulging.
пѓ� Gills, bright red/pink.
пѓ� Flesh, firm, moist, unbruised,
close grain.
� Fresh fish cheaper �in season’
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Fresh Fish can be bought:
Whole, usually smaller
fish e.g. herring.
пѓ� In Fillets, long thin
pieces removed from
the bone.
пѓ� Cutlets or Steaks, slices
cut across the body of
large round fish
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Buying Frozen fish
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Frozen solid
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Check �best before date’
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Packaging not damaged
Storing Fish
Fresh
Frozen
пѓ� Remove wrapping.
пѓ� Put in freezer as soon as
possible.
пѓ� Rinse cold water.
пѓ� Clean plate, cover loosely. пѓ� If fish has started to thaw
do not refreeze.
пѓ� Fridge.
пѓ� Use within recommended
пѓ� Use inside 24hrs.
time.
Frozen
Preserved fish
Canned
Smoked
Cod
Salmon
Salmon
Plaice
Tuna
Kippers (herring
Haddock
Mackerel
Trout
Prawns
Sardines
Haddock
Preparing fresh fish
Remove scales, scrape from tail to head.
пѓ� Cut off head or remove eyes.
пѓ� Cut off fins
пѓ� Cut off tail
пѓ� Slit underside and remove viscera
пѓ� Wash well rub with salt to remove black membrane.
пѓ� Rinse and dry with kitchen paper
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Filleting fish
Filleting
Flatfish
Cooking Fish
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Must be absolutely fresh
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Wash and dry well
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Cooked when flesh is
opaque and flakes apart
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Cooks quickly, falls apart
easily.
Suitable Methods of Cooking Fish
Frying
Shallow or deep, usually coated
Grilling
Fillets, cutlets, small thin fish
Poaching
Steaming
Baking
Simmer gently in Liquid @ 85ВєC, water,
milk, stock, wine.
Between 2 plates or in steamer
Whole., fillets, steaks, cutlets often
stuffed
Stewing
In sauce
Reheating
In fish pie or cakes.
Effects Of Cooking
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Protein coagulates and shrinks
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Becomes opaque
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Connective tissue dissolves fish falls apart
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Microbes die
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Vitamins and minerals dissolve into cooking liquid
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Some Vit. B destroyed
Coating
Sauces
Garnishes
Seasoned Flour
Cheese
Lemon
Egg &
Breadcrumb
Parsley
Parsley
Oatmeal
Egg
Cucumber
Batter
Tartare
Cheese
Hollandaise
Tomatoes
Peas
Coatings
Sauces
Garnishes
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