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Fish Hatchery Techniques: Quality Fingerlings for offshore Aquaculture

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Fish Hatchery Techniques:
Quality Fingerlings for
Offshore Aquaculture
Michael Rust
Northwest Fisheries Science Center
Seattle, Washington
Outline
• What is quality from the Hatchery?
–
–
–
–
–
Healthy fish
Weaned to Pelleted Feeds
No defects
Uniform Size
Physiologically appropriate
Healthy Fish
• Goal: Fish should be free of known diseases
– Approach - SPF hatcheries
• Goal: Fish should be protected from
potential diseases
– Approach:
пѓјVaccination
пѓјNutrition
Automatic Vaccination Lines
Fish Weaned to
Pelleted Diets
•
•
•
•
•
Goal: Fast Growth
Goal : Uniform Size
Goal: Cost Effective Feeding
Goal: Reduce Environmental Impacts
Goal: Healthy Fish
– Approach - Wean fish early and completely in Hatchery
– Approach - Complete Compound Feeds
– Approach - No Wet Fish (Trash Fish) Diets
No Defects
• Goal : High Product
Quality
– Approach - In
Hatchery Provide
Optimal
Environmental
Conditions
– Approach - Provide
high quality diets
Developmental Anomalies (Temperature)
Total hatch
100%
75%
Other
Jaw
50%
Spine
Normal
25%
0%
6
9
Temp (oC)
12
Developmental Anomalies (Salinity)
100%
90%
Total hatch
80%
70%
Other
Jaw
60%
50%
Spine
40%
Normal
30%
20%
10%
0%
15
20
25
30
Salinity (ppt)
35
Uniform in Size
• Goal: Uniform Product at Harvest
– Approach - Start with
uniform graded fish
– Approach - Genetic
Selection for Uniform
High Growth.
– Approach - Completely
weaned to High
Quality Pelleted diets.
Physiologically Appropriate
• Goal - Excellent Growth and Survival under
conditions in Offshore cages.
– Perhaps lower Oxygen
– Perhaps stronger currents
– Approach - Species Selection
• Bioenergetics model under conditions likely to be
found at site.
Simple Bioenergetics Model
E=G+R+L
–
–
–
–
Where:
E is the total energy taken in by the fish from the diet
G is the amount of energy going into growth
R is the amount of energy used for everything that is
not growh (movement, fighting diseases, reproduction,
etc)
– L is the losses due from Feces, Urine and energy to
digest the feed (SDA)
•Growth (G) represents a
very small part of the
energy budget of wild
animals.
• Respiration (R) and
Waste (F+U+SDA)
represents a large portion
of the energy budget
R
G
Total
6
Yearly energy demand (MJ)
Energy use curves
for wild Blue
Rockfish showing
energy partitioning.
Female
F+U+SDA
DB
в™Ђ
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
в™‚
Male
6
5
4
3
• Growth in farmed
salmon can reach 50% of
the total energy budget
2
1
0
0
5
10
15
20
Age (years)
25
30
Need to develop a simple bioenergetics
model for species of interest in off shore
aquaculture
• Conditions off shore are likely to be different than near
shore. In Washington State it is likely that they will have:
– Lower Oxygen
– Higher Currents
than traditional near shore aquaculture areas used by the
salmon farming industry.
Potentially more energy will be needed for R making less
available for G.
The cost/benefit to G from increased/reduced R is likely to be
different among species
The cost/benefit to G from increased/reduced R is likely to be
different among sites.
Bioenergetics models can be
developed for different conditions
and species using respirametry
Flow
DO in
CO2 in
By measuring the uptake of Oxygen under various conditions you can
determine R and predict G
Flow
DO out
CO2 out
Summary
• What is quality? It’s
–
–
–
–
–
Healthy fish
Weaned to Pelleted Feeds
No defects
Uniform Size
Physiologically appropriate
Thank you
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