Fish: The good and the bad Leslie E. Dorworth Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant College Program Purdue University Calumet Hammond, IN Fish is Good Food! пЃ¬ Source of protein and some minerals пЃ¬ Source of Omega-3 fatty acids Fish is Good Food! пЃ¬ Easy to prepare пЃ¬ Economical to catch locally пЃ¬ Culturally important to many populations U.S Fish Consumption - 2004 пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ Shrimp Canned Tuna Salmon Pollock Catfish Tilapia Crab Cod Clams Flatfish пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ 4.2 lbs/person 3.3 2.1 1.3 1.1 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.3 16.6 (Per Capita) H.M. Johnson & Assoc., 2005 WhatвЂ™s the Concern? пЃ¬ Fish consumption is the major pathway for exposure to mercury and PCBs in the diet DeRosa, ATSDR 1998 http://water.usgs.gov/wid/ FS_216-95/FS_21695.html Bioaccumulation/magnification: 1. Pollutants get into the sediment or water from man-made or natural processes 2. Plants and small organisms absorb/ingest the pollutants, including juvenile fish. 3. Large fish eat smaller fish. 4. Top predators (man, eagles, raccoons, etcвЂ¦) eat the big fish. Some pollutants can be found at much higher levels in fish compared with sediment! Overview пЃ¬ Healthy Fats in Fish пЃ¬ Mercury пЃ¬ PCBs and TEQ пЃ¬ Fish Advisories Omega-3 Fatty Acids пЃ¬ EPA вЂ“ eicosapentaenoic acid вЂ“ C20:5 n-3 пЃ¬ DHA вЂ“ docosahexaenoic acid вЂ“ C22:6 n-3 Healthy Fats in Fish пЃ¬ DHA вЂ“ important for brain/eye development NAS, 2002 пЃ¬ An estimated 250,000 Americans die each year from sudden cardiac death AHA пЃ¬ вЂњconsumption of long chain omega-3 fatty acids [as found in fatty fish] may reduce the risk of coronary heart diseaseвЂќ ISSFAL, 1994 Possible Mechanisms пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ Preventing arrhythmias Decreasing platelet aggregation Decreasing plasma triglycerides Moderately decreasing blood pressure Reducing atherosclerosis Small increase in HDL cholesterol Modulating endothelial function Decreasing pro-inflammatory eicosanoids NAS, 2002 Dietary Recommendations пЃ¬ National Academy of Sciences (NAS) вЂ“ 2002 вЂ“ EPA + DHA = 0.14 g/day for nursing and or pregnant women пЃ¬ Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report вЂ“ 2004 вЂ“ 8 oz fish/week пЃ¬ American Heart Association (AHA) вЂ“ 2 servings (2-3 oz per serving) of fatty fish/week вЂ“ EPA + DHA = 1 g/d for heart disease patients What % of the recommended levels do you get if you consume 8 oz/week? 600 497 Percentage 500 400 NAS 267 300 200 100 DG AHA 140 70 74 37 41 12 6 31 8 4 0 Atlantic Salmon Rainbow Trout Channel Catfish Canned Lt. Tuna Mercury Mercury and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fish Shark Swordfish Tilefish King Mackerel Fresh/frozen Tuna Tuna, albacore Tuna, light Hg (ppm) 0.99 0.97 1.45 0.73 0.38 Omega-3 FA (g/3oz) 0.90 0.70 0.80 0.34 0.24-1.28 0.32 0.12 0.7 0.26 Mercury Toxicity in Adults пЃ¬ Patients living in San Francisco пЃ¬ High-end consumers of higher Hg fish пЃ¬ Symptoms including fatigue, headache, decreased memory, decreased concentration, muscle and joint pain пЃ¬ Symptoms gone after diet changes Methylmercury пЃ¬ Crosses placenta and into breast milk пЃ¬ Clearance from body ~ 1 year пЃ¬ FDA Action Level (fish tissue) = 1 ppm пЃ¬ Canadian Limit (fish tissue) = 0.5 ppm Why focus on women of child-bearing age? Toxins can cross the placenta and are found in breast milk Fetal exposure can effect behavioral , neurological and cognitive function in infants and children Many of the most pronounced effects occur in the first trimester and chemicals like PCBs have a long half-life in the blood NHANES (1999вЂ“2002) - Mercury пЃ¬ ~6% of U.S. women have mercury levels in their blood that exceed the RfD (>5.8 Вµg/L) CDC, MMWR. 2004. 53(43):1018-1029 EPA Projection пЃ¬ 15% (630,000 babies of the 4 million born annually) may be exposed to excessive mercury when in the womb Mahaffey, EPA 2004 Mercury in Fish Sandwiches пЃ¬ Fish in sandwiches from 6 restaurant chains вЂ“ Dairy Queen, McDonaldвЂ™s Burger King, White Castle, Long John SilverвЂ™s and Subway пЃ¬ 5 sandwiches from 4 stores for each chain пЃ¬ Range 5-132 ppb hg вЂ“ well below FDA Action Level for Hg of 1000 ppbвЂ¦can exceed EPAвЂ™s RfD by 1.4x for 2 products пЃ¬ Low in EPA/DHA (92-620 mg/sandwich) Shim et. al., 2005 Mercury in Canned Fish пЃ¬ Canned tuna (n=240), salmon (n=16), and mackerel (n=16) пЃ¬ All samples were well below FDA Action Level for Hg of 1,000 ppb пЃ¬ Tuna (all types) = 188 ppb; salmon = 45 ppb; mackerel = 55 ppb пЃ¬ Chunk light tuna in water = 54 ppb but also lower in EPA/DHA Shim et. al., 2004 Canned Tuna and Mercury пЃ¬ Main source of dietary mercury exposure пЃ¬ Served in school lunch programs and provided by WIC clinics to lactating women пЃ¬ Consumer reports recommends women who are pregnant or nursing to not consume any canned tuna PCBs & TEQ Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) пЃ¬ 209 Congeners пЃ¬ AroclorsВ® include ~ 60 congeners Aroclor 12 68 12 represents 12 carbons 68 represents the % chlorine PCBs пЃ¬ ~ 6 years to clear from the body пЃ¬ Passes throough the placenta and into milk пЃ¬ U.S. and Canadian Limit (fish tissue) = 2 ppm (expected to increase cancer risk by 1 in 100,000) пЃ¬ Infants exposed at high levels: вЂ“ Have altered postnatal development, lower birth weight, smaller head circumference, poorer short-term memory Safe 1992; EPA/823-R-93, 1993 19 91 19 89 19 87 19 85 19 83 19 81 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 19 78 ppm Total PCBs in Coho Salmon Fillets (Lake Michigan) EPA/823-R-93-003, 1993 Maximum Total PCB in Sportfish пЃ¬ Creek Chub пЃ¬ White Sucker пЃ¬ Rock Bass пЃ¬ White Crappie пЃ¬ Spotted Bass пЃ¬ Green Sunfish пЃ¬ Black Bullhead пЃ¬ Channel Catfish пЃ¬ Carp PCB (ppm) 426 355 300 235 220 110 64 41 35 Sources of PCB (TEQ) in U.S. Diet Beef (78 g/d) Marine Fish/Shellfish Milk (27 g/d) Poultry (82 g/d) Pork (58 g/d) 13.6% Farmed Salmon (2.5 g/d) 8.4% Other Fish (16 g/d) NAS, 2003 Fish Advisories Fishy Characteristics: How can you tell if the fish you caught has a lot of mercury or other contaminants? Does it smell, look, act or taste different? General Guidelines: -Larger fish vs. smaller fish -Fish that are top predators (bioaccumulation) -Older fish -Source? FDA & EPA Advisory for Women of Childbearing Age and Children Advice For Women Who Are Pregnant, Or Who Might Become Pregnant, and Nursing Mothers About Avoiding Harm To Your Baby Or Young Child From Mercury In Fish пЃ¬ Do not eat Shark, Swordfish, King Mackerel, Tilefish пЃ¬ Eat up to 12 oz. (2 average meals) of a variety of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury. пЃ¬ For recreationally-caught fishвЂ¦check local advisories. пЃ¬ Eat up to 6 oz. of Albacore/white tuna per week, and on other fish in the same week FDA/EPA 2004 Choose Fish Low in Mercury www.americanheart.org Fish Hg (ppm) Omega-3 FA (g/3oz.) Canned Tuna (light) 0.12 0.26 Shrimp <LOD=0.01 ppm 0.27 Ollock 0.06 0.46 Salmon 0.01 0.68-1.83 Cod 0.11 0.13-0.24 Catfish 0.05 0.15-0.20 Clams <LOD=0.01 ppm 0.24 Flounder/sole 0.05 0.43 Crabs 0.06 0.34-0.40 Scallops 0.05 0.17 For Advisory Information пЃ¬ Current state and local advisories available at: вЂ“ http://fn.cfs.purdue.edu/fish4health/ вЂ“ http://www.idph.state.il.us/public/press06/2.2.0 6fishadv.htm Other Educational Materials пЃ¬ Sensitive populations: вЂ“ http://fn.cfs.purdue.edu/anglingindiana/FishAd visory%2006.PDF (English) вЂ“ http://fn.cfs.purdue.edu/anglingindiana/FishAd visory%2006%20Span.PDF (Spanish) вЂ“ http://fn.cfs.purdue.edu/anglingindiana/FishAd visory%20Kosher%2006.PDF (Kosher) Ways To Educate Others пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ пЃ¬ Local stakeholder involvement Translation of health education materials Signage Mass media Outreach at fairs and festivals One-on-one counseling Small grants for community programs FSNEP Fish Connection Collaboration with WIC I would like to thank Dr. Charles Santerre of Purdue University for providing the bulk of the slides for this presentation. Questions?