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Fish: The good and the bad - Illinois

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Fish: The good and the bad
Leslie E. Dorworth
Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant College Program
Purdue University Calumet
Hammond, IN
Fish is Good Food!
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Source of protein
and some minerals
пЃ¬ Source of Omega-3
fatty acids
Fish is Good Food!
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Easy to prepare
пЃ¬ Economical to
catch locally
пЃ¬ Culturally
important to many
populations
U.S Fish Consumption - 2004
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Shrimp
Canned Tuna
Salmon
Pollock
Catfish
Tilapia
Crab
Cod
Clams
Flatfish
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4.2 lbs/person
3.3
2.1
1.3
1.1
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.3
16.6 (Per Capita)
H.M. Johnson & Assoc., 2005
What’s the Concern?
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Fish consumption is
the major pathway for
exposure to mercury
and PCBs in the diet
DeRosa, ATSDR 1998
http://water.usgs.gov/wid/
FS_216-95/FS_21695.html
Bioaccumulation/magnification:
1. Pollutants get into the sediment
or water from man-made or
natural processes
2. Plants and small organisms
absorb/ingest the pollutants,
including juvenile fish.
3. Large fish eat smaller fish.
4. Top predators (man, eagles,
raccoons, etc…) eat the big fish.
Some pollutants can be found at much
higher levels in fish compared with
sediment!
Overview
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Healthy Fats in Fish
пЃ¬ Mercury
пЃ¬ PCBs and TEQ
пЃ¬ Fish Advisories
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
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EPA – eicosapentaenoic acid – C20:5 n-3
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DHA – docosahexaenoic acid – C22:6 n-3
Healthy Fats in Fish
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DHA – important for brain/eye development
NAS, 2002
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An estimated 250,000 Americans die each year
from sudden cardiac death
AHA
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“consumption of long chain omega-3 fatty acids
[as found in fatty fish] may reduce the risk of
coronary heart disease”
ISSFAL, 1994
Possible Mechanisms
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Preventing arrhythmias
Decreasing platelet aggregation
Decreasing plasma triglycerides
Moderately decreasing blood pressure
Reducing atherosclerosis
Small increase in HDL cholesterol
Modulating endothelial function
Decreasing pro-inflammatory eicosanoids
NAS, 2002
Dietary Recommendations
пЃ¬
National Academy of Sciences (NAS) – 2002
– EPA + DHA = 0.14 g/day for nursing and or pregnant
women
пЃ¬
Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Report –
2004
– 8 oz fish/week
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American Heart Association (AHA)
– 2 servings (2-3 oz per serving) of fatty fish/week
– EPA + DHA = 1 g/d for heart disease patients
What % of the recommended levels do you get
if you consume 8 oz/week?
600
497
Percentage
500
400
NAS
267
300
200
100
DG
AHA
140
70
74
37
41
12 6
31
8 4
0
Atlantic
Salmon
Rainbow Trout
Channel
Catfish
Canned Lt.
Tuna
Mercury
Mercury and Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Fish
Shark
Swordfish
Tilefish
King Mackerel
Fresh/frozen
Tuna
Tuna, albacore
Tuna, light
Hg (ppm)
0.99
0.97
1.45
0.73
0.38
Omega-3 FA
(g/3oz)
0.90
0.70
0.80
0.34
0.24-1.28
0.32
0.12
0.7
0.26
Mercury Toxicity in Adults
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Patients living in San Francisco
пЃ¬ High-end consumers of higher Hg fish
пЃ¬ Symptoms including fatigue, headache,
decreased memory, decreased
concentration, muscle and joint pain
пЃ¬ Symptoms gone after diet changes
Methylmercury
пЃ¬
Crosses placenta and into breast milk
пЃ¬ Clearance from body ~ 1 year
пЃ¬ FDA Action Level (fish tissue) = 1 ppm
пЃ¬ Canadian Limit (fish tissue) = 0.5 ppm
Why focus on women of
child-bearing age?
Toxins can cross the placenta
and are found in breast milk
Fetal exposure can effect
behavioral , neurological and
cognitive function in infants
and children
Many of the most pronounced
effects occur in the first
trimester and chemicals like
PCBs have a long half-life in
the blood
NHANES (1999–2002) - Mercury
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~6% of U.S. women have mercury levels in their
blood that exceed the RfD (>5.8 Вµg/L)
CDC, MMWR. 2004. 53(43):1018-1029
EPA Projection
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15% (630,000 babies of the 4 million born
annually) may be exposed to excessive
mercury when in the womb
Mahaffey, EPA 2004
Mercury in Fish Sandwiches
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Fish in sandwiches from 6 restaurant chains
– Dairy Queen, McDonald’s Burger King, White Castle,
Long John Silver’s and Subway
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5 sandwiches from 4 stores for each chain
 Range 5-132 ppb hg – well below FDA Action
Level for Hg of 1000 ppb…can exceed EPA’s
RfD by 1.4x for 2 products
пЃ¬ Low in EPA/DHA (92-620 mg/sandwich)
Shim et. al., 2005
Mercury in Canned Fish
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Canned tuna (n=240), salmon (n=16), and
mackerel (n=16)
пЃ¬ All samples were well below FDA Action Level
for Hg of 1,000 ppb
пЃ¬ Tuna (all types) = 188 ppb; salmon = 45 ppb;
mackerel = 55 ppb
пЃ¬ Chunk light tuna in water = 54 ppb but also lower
in EPA/DHA
Shim et. al., 2004
Canned Tuna and Mercury
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Main source of dietary mercury exposure
пЃ¬ Served in school lunch programs and
provided by WIC clinics to lactating women
пЃ¬ Consumer reports recommends women who
are pregnant or nursing to not consume any
canned tuna
PCBs & TEQ
Polychlorinated Biphenyls
(PCBs)
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209 Congeners
пЃ¬ AroclorsВ® include ~ 60 congeners
Aroclor 12 68
12 represents 12 carbons
68 represents the % chlorine
PCBs
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~ 6 years to clear from the body
пЃ¬ Passes throough the placenta and into milk
пЃ¬ U.S. and Canadian Limit (fish tissue) = 2 ppm
(expected to increase cancer risk by 1 in 100,000)
пЃ¬ Infants exposed at high levels:
– Have altered postnatal development, lower birth
weight, smaller head circumference, poorer short-term
memory
Safe 1992; EPA/823-R-93, 1993
19
91
19
89
19
87
19
85
19
83
19
81
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
19
78
ppm
Total PCBs in Coho Salmon
Fillets (Lake Michigan)
EPA/823-R-93-003, 1993
Maximum Total PCB in Sportfish
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Creek Chub
пЃ¬ White Sucker
пЃ¬ Rock Bass
пЃ¬ White Crappie
пЃ¬ Spotted Bass
пЃ¬ Green Sunfish
пЃ¬ Black Bullhead
пЃ¬ Channel Catfish
пЃ¬ Carp
PCB (ppm)
426
355
300
235
220
110
64
41
35
Sources of PCB (TEQ) in U.S. Diet
Beef (78 g/d)
Marine
Fish/Shellfish
Milk (27 g/d)
Poultry (82 g/d)
Pork (58 g/d)
13.6% Farmed Salmon (2.5 g/d)
8.4% Other Fish (16 g/d)
NAS, 2003
Fish Advisories
Fishy Characteristics:
How can you tell if the fish you caught has a lot of mercury or
other contaminants? Does it smell, look, act or taste different?
General Guidelines:
-Larger fish vs. smaller
fish
-Fish that are top
predators
(bioaccumulation)
-Older fish
-Source?
FDA & EPA Advisory for Women
of Childbearing Age and Children
Advice For Women Who Are Pregnant, Or Who
Might Become Pregnant, and Nursing Mothers
About Avoiding Harm To Your Baby Or Young
Child From Mercury In Fish
пЃ¬
Do not eat Shark, Swordfish, King Mackerel,
Tilefish
пЃ¬ Eat up to 12 oz. (2 average meals) of a variety of
fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury.
 For recreationally-caught fish…check local
advisories.
пЃ¬ Eat up to 6 oz. of Albacore/white tuna per week,
and on other fish in the same week
FDA/EPA 2004
Choose Fish Low in Mercury
www.americanheart.org
Fish
Hg (ppm)
Omega-3 FA (g/3oz.)
Canned Tuna (light)
0.12
0.26
Shrimp
<LOD=0.01 ppm
0.27
Ollock
0.06
0.46
Salmon
0.01
0.68-1.83
Cod
0.11
0.13-0.24
Catfish
0.05
0.15-0.20
Clams
<LOD=0.01 ppm
0.24
Flounder/sole
0.05
0.43
Crabs
0.06
0.34-0.40
Scallops
0.05
0.17
For Advisory Information
пЃ¬
Current state and local advisories available
at:
– http://fn.cfs.purdue.edu/fish4health/
– http://www.idph.state.il.us/public/press06/2.2.0
6fishadv.htm
Other Educational Materials
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Sensitive populations:
– http://fn.cfs.purdue.edu/anglingindiana/FishAd
visory%2006.PDF (English)
– http://fn.cfs.purdue.edu/anglingindiana/FishAd
visory%2006%20Span.PDF (Spanish)
– http://fn.cfs.purdue.edu/anglingindiana/FishAd
visory%20Kosher%2006.PDF (Kosher)
Ways To Educate Others
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Local stakeholder involvement
Translation of health education materials
Signage
Mass media
Outreach at fairs and festivals
One-on-one counseling
Small grants for community programs
FSNEP Fish Connection
Collaboration with WIC
I would like to thank Dr. Charles
Santerre of Purdue University for
providing the bulk of the slides for this
presentation.
Questions?
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