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Fish production trend over time in Bangladesh

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A Background Paper on
Bangladesh Fisheries
Md. Ferdous Alam
Madan Mohan Dey
1
BANGLADESH
пЃ± The country is bounded by
India in the north and west; by the
Bay of Bengal in the south, and
finally by part of India and
Myanmar in the eastern side.
пЃ±The total area of the country is
147,570 sq km (56,977 sq. miles).
пЃ± A wide portion of land is
covered by large rivers such as
the Padma, the Jamuna, the
Teesta, the Meghna, the
Brahmaputra, and the Surma.
пЃ±There are also thousands
of tributaries with a total length of
about 24,140 km. These rivers are
connected to the Bay of Bengal.
2
FISHERIES RESOURCES
1.
2.
3.
Inland Open-waters :
(capture fishery)
4047316ha
Inland closed-water : 528390ha
(culture fishery)
Total inland area
: 4575706 ha
Marine water
84.75%
15.25%
100.00%
:166,000 sq km
3
FISHERIES POTENINTIAL
пЃ¶ Fisheries have huge potential
пЃ¶Have one of the highest man-water ratio in the
world (at 20 persons per ha of watet area)
пЃ¶ Available sunlight and temperature throughout
the year is an added advantage for fish
production
пЃ¶ Water fertility is conducive to fish growth
FISH AND FISHERIES
пЃ¶ Fish and fisheries are an integral part of the life of
Bangladeshi
пЃ¶ Fish is a natural complement in the diet of Bangladeshi
пЃ¶ Fish supplies 58% of animal protein
пЃ¶ 13 million people are involved for livelihood
пЃ¶ 73% of rural household are involved in freshwater
aquaculture and floodplains
пЃ¶ Fisheries contribute:
4.64% to the GDP
23.00% to agricultural GDP, and
5.10% to foreign exchange earning
5
INLAND OPEN-WATERS
(CAPTURE FISHERY)
Environment
i. Rivers and Estuaries
ii. Sundarban (water resources
in forest)
iii. Beel (deepest part of the
floodplain)
iv. Kaptai lake
Water Area (ha)
853,863
(21.10%)
177,700
(4.38%)
114,161
(2.82%)
68,800
v. Floodplain
(1.70%)
2,832,792
Total inland open-waters
(70.00%)
4,047,316
6
Inland closed-water (culture fishery)
Environment
i. Ponds and ditches
Water Area
(ha)
30 5,205
(57.76%)
II Baor
(ox-bow lake for hydro electricity
generation)
iii. Shrimp Farms
(freshwater and Brackish water)
Total inland closed-waters
5,488
(1.04%)
217,877
(41.23%)
528,390
7
Marine waters
Environment
Water Area
i. Coastal Area
2.30 million ha
ii. Coast line (along the Bay of
Bengal)
710 km
iii. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
200-mile
Total Marine Water (including EEZ)
166,000 sq km
8
Fish Production (2008-09)
Inland capture fisheries
i. Rivers and estuaries
ii. Sundarban
iii. Beel
iv. Kaptai lake
v. Floodplain
Total
Inland culture fishery
i. Ponds and ditches
ii. baor
iii. Shrimp/prawn farm
Total
Marine Fisheries
Country Total
Production (ton)
138,160
18,462
79,200
8,590
879,513
1,123,925
(41.61%)
912,178
5,038
145,585
1,062,801
(39.61%)
514,644
(19.05%)
Productivity
(Kg/ha)
162
104
694
125
310
2991
918
668
2,701,370
9
19
8
19 3-8 4
8
19 4-8 5
8
19 5-8 6
8
19 6-8 7
8
19 7-8 8
8
19 8-8 9
8
19 9-9 0
9
19 0-9 1
9
19 1-9 2
9
19 2-9 3
9
19 3-9 4
9
19 4-9 5
9
19 5-9 6
9
19 6-9 7
9
19 7-9 8
9
19 8-9 9
9
20 9-0 0
0
20 0-0 1
0
20 1-0 2
0
20 2-0 3
0
20 3-0 4
0
20 4-0 5
0
20 5-0 6
0
20 6-0 7
0
20 7-0 8
08
-0
9
Production (ton)
Fish Production Trend of Bangladesh
3000000
2500000
2000000
1500000
1000000
500000
0
Year
19
83
19 -84
8
19 4 -8
85 5
19 -86
8
19 6 -8
87 7
19 -88
8
19 8 -8
89 9
19 -90
9
19 0 -9
91 1
19 -92
9
19 2 -9
93 3
19 -94
9
19 4 -9
95 5
19 -96
9
19 6 -9
97 7
19 -98
9
19 8 -9
99 9
20 -00
0
20 0 -0
01 1
20 -02
0
20 2 -0
03 3
20 -04
0
20 4 -0
05 5
20 -06
0
20 6 -0
07 7
20 -08
08
-0
9
Production (tons)
Fish production from different sources
Inland capture
Inland culture
marine
1200000
1000000
800000
600000
400000
200000
0
Year
11
Fish production from inland culture
sources
Fish production from inland culture fishery
Baors
Total aquaculture
2007-08
2008-09
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1200000
1100000
1000000
900000
800000
700000
600000
500000
400000
300000
200000
100000
0
1983-84
1984-85
Production (Tons)
Ponds
Shrimp farms
Year
12
Prawn/shrimp production over time by sources
inland openwater
Marine
inland culture
Total
275000
250000
200000
175000
150000
125000
100000
75000
50000
25000
2008-09
2007-08
2006-07
2005-06
2004-05
2003-04
2002-03
2001-02
2000-01
1999-00
1998-99
1997-98
1996-97
1995-96
1994-95
1993-94
1992-93
1991-92
0
1990-91
Production (ton)
225000
Year
13
2008-09
2007-08
2006-07
Inland waters
Total
2005-06
2004-05
2003-04
2002-03
2001-02
2000-01
1999-00
1998-99
1997-98
1996-97
1995-96
1994-95
1993-94
1992-93
1991-92
1990-91
Production (tons)
Hilsha harvest over time by sources
Marine water
350000
300000
250000
200000
150000
100000
50000
0
Year
14
Fish Production Growth (1983-84 to 2008-09)
Fishery
Exponential growth
rate (%)
A. Inland capture fishery
i. Rivers and estuaries
ii. Sundarban
iii. Beels
iv. Kaptai Lake
v. Floodplain
3.78
-1.48
4.64
2.70
4.28
6.34
B. Inland culture Fishery
i. Ponds
ii. Baor
iii. Shrimp farms
C. Marine Fishery
i. Industrial fishery
ii. Artisanal
Total (all fisheries)
9.69
9.63
7.48
10.37
4.34
4.59
4.28
5.61
Rank
9
5
8
7
4
2
3
1
6
7
15
Fish Biodiversity
пЃ± There are 300 species of fish and 20 species of prawns in
Bangladesh.
пЃ± The most common species is ilish (national fish)
пЃ± 60 native and 13 exotic species of fish and 20 species of
shrimp in inland freshwaters.
пЃ± The major and minor indigenous carps are (katla, rohu,
mrigel and kalbasu) and (bata, reba, nandin and gonia).
пЃ± Introduced exotic species are silver carps, grass carp,
bighead carp, black carp, common carp, silver barb, Tilapia
and Mahseer
пЃ± Indigenous carps (Rohu, Catla and Mrigal) and one exotic
carp (silver carp) accounts for about 74% of pond
production.
пЃ± Other major cultures species in Bangladesh include the
grass carp, common carp, tilapia and Pangas.
16
Threat to Biodiversity
пЃ± Number of freshwater species is declining at an
alarming rate with some species, in recent years,
having become extinct.
пЃ± According to the Red Book figure, about 54 freshwater
species are critically or somewhat endangered in the
country. Among them 14 species are listed as critically
endangered; 27 as endangered and 14 s vulnerable
(IUCN, 2000).
пЃ± Overfishing, rapid extraction of fish seed and
broodstock, destructive and unregulated fishing
practices, pollution, introduction of exotic species,
loss of aquatic habitat due to siltation, dam
construction, and other anthropogenic activities have
been the major causes of fish species loss.
17
Intensity of technology use
Technology
Intensity Technollogy
Intensity
Mixed culture of
carps
IE, SI
Sorpunti culture
IE
Integrated Fish
Culture
IE, SI
Pangas culture
IE
Composite culture
of carps and
freshwater prawn
IE, SI
Galda
IE
Culture of Tilapia
IE, SI
Bagda
E, SI
Culture of Exotic
magur
IE, SI, I
Fish culture in cages SI, I
Fish cultutre in Pen
IE
18
Processing and export
пЃ± No. of Fish processing plant: 133
пЃ± Most of them are in Khulna and Chittagong
пЃ± Capacity far outstrips supply (18-20% capacity
utilization)
пЃ± Product sale comprises 72% unprocessed (frozen
whole)
product, 24% prepared/preserved and 4%
other products (frozen freshwater fish)
пЃ± Main markets are USA (40%), EU (UK, Netherland,
Belgium,
пЃ± Germany) 39%
пЃ± Demand is strong for Bagda and Golda
пЃ± Freshwater fish are exported for expatriate
Bangladeshi communities
19
Fisheries Export
Year
Total
export
(tons)
Total value
(Million
Taka)
% of total
export
earning
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
39391
38988
41482
47371
54141
63377
68829
73704
75299
72888
18115.6
20327.5
16371.4
19415.9
23634.7
25712.2
30298.4
33528.9
33962.8
32434.1
6.28
5.77
4.76
5.10
5.71
5.90
4.56
4.90
4.04
3.00
20
Fisheries Export Trend
Quantity and Value of fish and fisheries products exported
Qty. exported
value of export
Linear (Qty. exported )
Linear (value of export)
y = 2978.3x + 21182
70000
60000
50000
40000
y = 1635.5x + 5207
30000
20000
10000
2008-09
2007-08
2006-07
2005-06
2004-05
2003-04
2002-03
2001-02
2000-01
1999-00
1998-99
1997-98
1996-97
1995-96
1994-95
1993-94
0
1992-93
Value of export (Million Taka)
80000
Year
21
Export of fish and fish products
Export items
Frozen shrimp/prawn
Live fish
Frozen fish
Dryfish
Salted &dehydrated
fish
Turtle/Tortoise, crab &
eel
Shark fin and Fish
Maws
Others
All items
Qty
(ton)
% of
total
50368
69.103
0.3
0.000
19294
26.471
341
0.468
84
0.115
1217
1.670
276
0.379
1308
1.795
72888.3
100.000
2008-09
Frozen shrimp/prawn
Frozen fish
Salted &dehydrated fish
Shark fin and Fish Maws
Live fish
Dryfish
Turtle/Tortoise, crrab & eel
Others
A Generalized Marketing Channel
PRIMARY MARKET
Collection center/rural market within the fishing area. Operated by collectors
SECONDARY MARKET
First landing and distribution center near thana headquarters or vital
communication points. Market operated by commission agents called aratdars
HIGHER SECONDARY MARKET
Second landing & distribution center in cities/towns.
Operated by commission agents called aratdars
FINAL CONSUMING MARKET
Retail marketing. Paikars sell to retailers
Sub-urban
Urban
retailing
retailing
Rural
retailing
23
Domestic Marketing Channel (Public sector)
BFDC
Brokers
Beparies`
Aratdars
Retailers
Consumers
24
Market Channel and Share
(culture fish)
Fish Farmer
Nikari
82.85%
10%
Home
Consumption
7.15%
Bepari
75.6%
Aratdar
75.6%
Paiker/ Retailer
92.85%
Consumer
25
Marketing profit of frozen and dryfish
(Taka/Kg)
Markets
Major
frozen
species
Minor frozen Processing
species
plants for
frozen /dry
species
Primary
9.43
6.56
Secondary
3.14
4.06
Consumer
13.53
8.49
All market
26.10
19.13
98.94 / 90.12
Ahmed (2009) showed that total marketing margin of
tilapia is 31%: 5% (primary market), (15%) secondary
market and (11%) retail market
26
Producer’s share to consumer price
Author
Producer share(%) Species types
Rahman (2009)
40-45
Freshwater Fish
Khan (1995)
45.60 , 83.44
Freshwater Fish
Islam (1997)
59.63, 65.11
shrimp
Mia (1996)
56
Marine fish
Ahmed (1983)
51-63
60-63
Freshwater and
marine species
Marine species
Ahmed (2007)
55
Hilsha
Ahmed (2009)
69
Tilapia
27
Data availability
Fisheries data are generated mainly by three organizations:
1. Department of Fisheries :
This publication provides details of production statistics
by fisheries resources, species, districts, upazilas and
export statistics of fish and fish products. Unfortunately,
the publication does not provide any information of fish
prices.
2. Department of Agricultural Marketing :
DAM maintains retail prices, wholesale prices and
growers prices of different markets under upazillas and
districts of different divisions.
3. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics :
BBS produces annual price statistics of some selected fish
species in its annual publications, Yearbook of Statistics
and Statistical Pocket Book of Bangladesh.
28
Market/marketing Review of Studies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Marketing studies of crops are plenty
Fish marketing studies are very scanty
Most fish marketing studies are conducted in BAU
Most studies relate to kind of price spread and marketing
margin
Few market integration studies exist that are
methodologically very shallow (correlation approach)
Most studies are done with limited sample
No representative structure-conduct-performance type
study exists
Supply chain, value chain and price spread type studies
are confusing
No existence of studies related to price transmission and
price linkage across different market levels
29
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