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Fish oil

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Fish oil
Lana Garrett
Nutrition 4320
March 2007
Why Fish oil???
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Personal Interest
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Ganglion cist and because I don’t get
enough!
Family
Public Interest
Scientific Research is exploding
Health Benefits are intriguing
Overview of Presentation
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Description and History
Nutrient Composition
Health Claims
Roles in the Body
Science Supporting the claims
Recommendations
Conclusion
What is Fish oil?
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Omega-3 long chain PUFA
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Contains Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).
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Essential because it is not synthesized in the
body.
Produced by ALA in the body.
EPA and DHA are considered to be the most
important FA for brain function.
Fish get their high omega-3 content from
eating algae.
History of Fish oil
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Omega-3 FA have been a part of the Human Diet for
millennia.
Homo Sapiens evolved in an omega-3 rich environment.
Omega-3 consumption has declined over the past
century.
1994 the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy
(COMA) published findings of the benefits on
cardiovascular health.
Since 1994, more extensive research has been
conducted.
Nutrient Composition
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Rich sources of
omega-3 FA,
particularly
eicosapentaenoic acid
(EPA) and
docosahexaenoic acid
(DHA).
Some supplements
contain Vitamin E.
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180 mg of EPA and 120
mg of DHA
Food Sources and Preparation
Considerations
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Diet sources are
preferred, but for larger
doses supplementation
may be necessary.
Supplements comparable
to fish consumption.
Cold water, fatty fish such
as salmon, swordfish,
shark, sardines, mackerel,
and herring are richest
sources.
To prevent aftertaste try
freezing the capsules.
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To reduce exposure to
contaminants remove the
skin and fat from fish
before cooking them.
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Although skinning and
trimming doesn’t
reduce mercury
content.
Health Claims
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Brain Development
Inflammation
Mental Disorders
Cardiovascular
Disease
Alcoholism
Cancer
Kidney Disease
Menopause
Crohn’s Disease
Type II Diabetes
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Asthma
Dyslexia
Migraine Headaches
Lupus
Suicide
Respiratory Diseases
Multiple Sclerosis
Peroxisome
Biogenesis Disorder
Blindness
Brain Development
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DHA and EPA are main components in neurological function and play
a key role in brain development.
DHA deficiency in brain.
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Increased maternal consumption increasing fetal omega-3 levels in
the brain, thus potentially benefiting the fetus.
Breast milk has high levels of DHA.
Infants whose mothers received fish oil supplementation were
followed up at 4 years of age and tested higher in mental processing
than the control group.
The omega 6:3 ratio has increased from 1:1 to 17:1 (10:1, 20-30:1)
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uses other PUFA, thus changing brain function.
Due to increase of vegetable oils and margarine and low fish intake.
Can benefit visual acuity and cognitive development.
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Strong human evidence is lacking.
Inflammation
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Growing evidence from animal and human
studies suggesting therapeutic properties in
treating inflammatory conditions such as
rheumatoid arthritis.
Studies show a significant reduction in the
number of tender joints and morning
stiffness after 3 months of therapy
consuming 3 g of fish oil per day.
Comparable to NSAIDs.
More severe inflammation in consumers of
omega-6 FA than omega-3.
Mental Disorders
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Perhaps one of the most intriguing area for potential
benefits.
High fish oil consumption is linked to lower rates of
depression.
Therapeutic properties for depression, bipolar disorders
and schizophrenia.
Depression rates as high as 21 percent of the general
U.S. population.
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Linked with the increase of omega-6 and decrease of
omega-3.
Useful in the treatment of depression at dosages of 0.2
g-9.6 g EPA+DHA.
Very large studies are needed.
Cardiovascular Disease
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Widely accepted that it reduces the risk of
cardiovascular disease.
One or two fish meals a week will
significantly reduce the risk for CHD.
Although, some reports have not confirmed
these conclusions.
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Possibly because the mercury content
counteracts the benefits of omega-3 FA by
increasing free radical production or by
inactivating antioxidant mechanisms.
Risks and Benefits
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Risks/side effects
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Fishy aftertaste and
belching
Gastrointestinal
disturbances
Nausea
Mercury content
Pregnant women and
lactating women
advised not to consume
large amount of fish
due to mercury content
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Benefits
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Similar effects to LDLcholesterol lowering
therapy, lifestyle
change, and vigorous
exercise.
No documented cases
of abnormal bleeding
resulting in fish oil
supplements.
Well-tolerated.
No significant drug
interactions.
Roles in the Body
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Major structural component of phospholipids
in neuronal cell membranes.
Predominant structural fatty acids in the
grey matter of the brain.
EPA is a substrate for the initial enzymes in
prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis.
The breakdown of omega-3 and 6 share the
same enzyme.
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Preference for omega 3, but can switch to
omega-6 due to an excess of omega 6
consumption.
Science supporting the claims
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Strong evidence
supporting claims and
is proven to improve
health, but more
research is needed.
More work needs to be
done to update
recommendations.
Results are often times
inconsistent and
different dosage
amounts need to be
tested.
How to use it
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Dosage
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Evidence suggests 1-2 g/day are required, but cannot be
attained by diet alone.
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Capsules usually contain 180mg of EPA and 120 mg DHA
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Liquid concentrate: 1 tsp contains approx 1-3 g of EPA plus DHA
Frequency
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AHA Dietary Guidelines recommends consuming at least 2
servings of fish per week for general population and 2 portions
for pregnant or lactating women.
Quality
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Diet sources are best, but supplements offer a safe alternative.
Cost
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$0.13 to $0.42 per capsule depending on brand.
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$0.95 to $9.77 per oz of liquid form depending on brand.
Does it really work???
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Safety
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Be aware of the risks and benefits for the different
stages of life (ie: pregnant or lactating, mental
disorders, CHD, etc).
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FDA ruled that intakes of up to 3 g/day of omega-3
FA are recognized as safe.
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Supplements are mercury free.
Efficacy
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Reduces risk for sudden death
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Reduces all-cause mortality
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Additional studies are needed to confirm the benefits
for cardiovascular primary and secondary
prevention.
Ethics in Marketing
What you should know…
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Components of fish oil and how it is produced in the
body
Good food sources
What key role does DHA and EPA play in the brain?
What are the AHA Dietary Guidelines for weekly fish
consumption for the general population?
Four health claims focused on
What has changed the Western Diet to increase the ratio
of omega-6:3 PUFA?
What the FDA regulated as a safe daily intake of omega3 PUFA
The End
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Any Questions?
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