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2 Fish, Amp, Rep Diseases and Habitats

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Fish, Amphibians, and
Diseases and habitats
Signs and Symptoms of
п‚©Fish are behaving
п‚©Fish are floating to surface,
sinking to bottom, or leaning to
the side of aquarium
Fish’s fins are unusually laying
flat against the body
Disease Signs
п‚©Fish have rolled or closed
caudal fins
п‚©A fish is off by itself and not
swimming with the school
п‚©Fish appears to be in slow
motion and not keeping up with
other fish
Disease Signs
Fish’s breathing seem unusually
faster and deeper than normal
п‚©Fish at the surface gasping for
п‚©Fish are rubbing/scratching
against objects in the aquarium
п‚©Not interested in eating
Disease Signs
п‚©Fish belly appears caved in or
unusually thin
п‚©Fish belly appears bloated or
п‚©Color of fish has changed or
п‚©Fish fins appearance is frayed
Disease Signs
п‚©The back and spinal column
appear distorted
п‚©Eyes are not clear, appear
something is cloudy
The fish’s scales are not
normally sticking out, they lay
flat against body
Disease Signs
п‚©White spots are covering body
п‚©Protruding eyes
п‚©Anal discharge hanging from
п‚©White spot (Ich)- organism
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and
causes numerous white spots on the
body and fins of stressed fish. Ich is
one of the most common diseases
found in aquarium fish
п‚©Slime disease- parasites attack skin
of fish causing a large amount of
mucus. May cause death if it attacks
the gills.
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis
Slime disease
п‚©Hole-in-the-head- organism
Hexsamita live under skin in
muscle tissue make tissue break
down and skin opens to make fish
appear to have holes
п‚©Velvet disease- organism
Oodinium penetrates skin cells
and feed on fish
Velvet disease
п‚©White fungus growth- white
growth around mouth, fins, eye,
and gills. A secondary infection
is usually present already
п‚©Flukes- worm-like parasite that
attaches to the gills and body of
п‚©Anchor worms- adhere and
burrow under scales to attack the
п‚©Fish lice- attach to body of fish
and pierce skin to discharge a
Bacterial disease
п‚©Finrot- where the edges of the
fish’s fins start to appear frayed
and ragged, lose their color and
the tissue between the fins breaks
Bacterial disease
п‚©Mouth fungus- caused by a
bacteria which a white tuffy
material appears around the
mouth and white patches on the
Bacterial disease
п‚©Neon disease- caused by a
parasite Plistophora
hyphessobryconis. This organism
is found in the fish’s body tissue
where it causes the production of
spores which are released when
it dies
Bacterial disease
п‚©Tuberculosis- caused by bacteria
that invades the organs and
tissues of the body
п‚©Pseudomonas and Aeromonassecondary infections in fish that
are already sick. Fish will have
swollen bellies, lesions or ulcers
Bacterial disease
п‚©Environmental control- problems in
the tank
п‚©Lack of oxygen and over abundance of
carbon dioxide can be readily observed
when almost all the fish are swimming
near the surface gulping for air
п‚©Incorrect water pH-causes respiratory
problems and excess mucus production
Bacterial disease
п‚©Environmental control- problems in
the tank
п‚©Chemical filtration ability reduced and
ammonia builds up can be observed by
cloudy, murky water
п‚©Gravel filtration system pollution
buildup of iron sulphite can be
observed by the black color on the
Amphibians and Reptiles
п‚©Salmonella is a bacterial disease
that can be transmitted to
humans. It affects the digestive
tract and causes watery, green,
foul-smelling diarrhea
Amphibians and Reptiles
п‚©Mouth Rot is a fungal disease
associated with sores or open wounds
in the mouth.
п‚©Mites and ticks are external parasites
that attack amphibians and reptiles.
Mites usually go undetected until
there is a heavy infestation.
Symptoms include: anemia, anorexia,
depression, stress, listlessness, lack of
appetite, and possible death.
A severe case of mouth rot in a
female Chamaeleo quadricornis.
п‚©Includes the use of chemicals in the
water with the aquarium being
thoroughly cleaned before fish are
returned. Some fish need to be
placed in a hospital tank and treated
before returning to normal tank.
Most of the diseases and ailments
treatments can be found at the local
pet store
Considerations when
purchasing aquaria
п‚©Type- either glass or plastic.
Plastic is cheaper, but all glass is
easier to clean. Framed tanks
are more expensive than all glass
and offer more support to the
Purchasing considerations
п‚©Size- ranges from a simple Beta
or Goldfish bowl 1 gal capacity
of water (can be smaller or
larger) to 10, 30, 50, or 100
gallon plus. The thickness of
glass ranges from Вј inch for
small aquariums to 3/8” for
larger aquariums
Purchasing considerations
п‚©Size depends on the amount you
want to invest and the type (species)
of fish
п‚©Shape depends on personal
preference and species of fish you
are interested in raising. The most
common shape is rectangular, but
square, spherical, etc are also
Purchasing considerations
п‚©Species- type of fish purchasing,
freshwater versus tropical
Equipment needed
п‚©Tank size
п‚©As a general rule for stocking rate
for an aquarium is as follows:
п‚©1 inch of fish requires a minimum
surface area of:
п‚©Tropical fish: 10 square inches
п‚©Cold water: 30 square inches
п‚©Marine aquarium: 48 square inches
Equipment needed
п‚©Example of size: An aquarium that is 24
inches long by 10 inches high has 240
inches of surface area. Therefore, the
tank would hold 24 inches of tropical fish,
8 inches of cold water fish, or 5 inches of
marine fish. One could have eight 3 inch
swordtails, two 4 inch Goldfish in a
coldwater aquarium, or two Brasslets 2
ВЅ inch long in a marine aquarium.
Equipment needed
п‚©Power filter with an electric motor
п‚©Filtration systems remove uneaten
food materials, dissolved materials,
solid waste and neutralize harmful
п‚©Mechanical- removal of waste by
various kinds of filtration devices.
Modern systems use an external filter
Equipment needed
п‚©Filtration systems
п‚©Chemical- removal of dissolved
material by using chemical process.
The use of activated charcoal to soak
up dissolved minerals and chemicals is
the most common chemical removal
process. Activated charcoal is often
part of the filter system and must be
changed at regular intervals
Equipment needed
п‚©Filtration systems
п‚©Biological filtration use bacteria to
feed on toxic substances such as the
ammonia excreted from fish during
respiration or as a result of decaying
waste and food material. The waste in
the tank is changed from a harmful
substance (ammonia) to a harmless
substance of nitrogen. In addition the
dissolved oxygen in the water is
Equipment needed
п‚©Air pumps used for aeration
п‚©The water is circulated from the
bottom of the tank to the surface where
aeration can take place
п‚©Compressed air (oxygen) is pumped
through airstones (fused, porous glass)
to break the airflow into minute
Equipment needed
п‚©Air pumps
п‚©As the compressed air goes into the
water, it disperses carbon dioxide
п‚©Air bubbles rising from the bottom of
the aquarium aid in equalizing the
aquarium water temperature
throughout and circulating the water to
the top where aeration can take place
Equipment needed
п‚©Hydrometer- for measuring salt
content, GFCI electrical outlet
п‚©Heater/thermostat is needed to
maintain water temperature for
tropical aquariums. The heater must
be the right size: approximately 10
watts of power for each 1 ВЅ gallons
of water
Equipment needed
п‚©Thermometer- liquid crystal thermometers
that are adhesive strips that stick to the
outside of the aquarium are popular
п‚©Water containers- aquarium water-holding
п‚©Other materials include: gravel and/or
sand, plants, decorative stones, hood with
starter for fluorescent lights, dip nets,
decorative materials
п‚©Remove temporary hardness of
water by boiling and allowing to sit
prior to its use in the aquarium
п‚©Eliminate chlorine by aerating it for
12-24 hours prior to use or allowing
it to sit for 48 hours so the chlorine
will evaporate
Maintenance schedule
п‚©Check heater, temperature,
aeration and filtration
п‚©Remove dead fish
п‚©Observe for any unusual behavior
Maintenance schedule
п‚©Check water level and pH
п‚©Add water and chemicals as
Maintenance schedule
п‚©Вј to 1/5 of the water needs to be
changed every 3-4 weeks to provide
fish a stress free environment and
prolong the life of the filters
п‚©Siphon off any dead material from
bottom of aquarium
п‚©Tend to plants in aquarium
п‚©Remove algae
Other factors
п‚©Factors that contribute to increased
ammonia and nitrates in the tank
п‚©Increase in waste material and
uneaten food on the bottom (don’t
п‚©Dirty filters and failure to change
water monthly
п‚©Overpopulation of fish
Feeding fish
п‚©Vary feed to prevent boredom-fish
really like live food, but freeze dried
and frozen food is a good alternative
п‚©Feed fish 2 to 3 times per day
п‚©Feed only enough feed for the fish to
eat in 3-5 minutes (Many people
overfeed fish and cause unsanitary
aquarium conditions)
Feeding fish
п‚©Commercially prepared flake foods are
ideal for small fish up to 4-5” long.
Vitamins and nutrients are provided in
amounts needed by the fish
п‚©Commercially prepared pellets work well
for larger fish. The type depends on the
eating habit of the fish being kept
п‚©Live foods like brine shrimp, earthworms,
wood lice, and worms are treats to fish
Amphibians and Reptiles
п‚©Vast difference in species, but
the goal should always be to
duplicate the natural
environment of the pet
п‚©Aquariums usually make the best
Amphibians and Reptiles
п‚©Semi-aquatic aquariums may be made by
using plexi-glass to petition the aquarium
in half
п‚©Vivariums should be designed to give the
reptile an environment close to its actual
п‚©Reptiles are ectotherms. They do not
generate body heat and must rely
completely on the temperature of their
Amphibians and Reptiles
п‚©Reptiles need ultraviolet (UV) rays
for calcium metabolism, formation of
pigment, and vitamin D synthesis
п‚©Reptiles need sunlight
п‚©Fluorescent lights will provide UV
rays as long as there is not glass
between the light and the reptile.
Glass filters the UV rays out
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