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Fish Bones

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Shellfish Mortality
Workshop
Sponsored by the
Centre for Shellfish Research and the
B.C. Shellfish Growers Association
October 16, 2003
Shellfish Aquaculture Mortality
Workshop
Identified an industry need - research
Unexplained shellfish mortality events negatively
effecting industry
R&D workshop held- same objectives as today
1.
Bring producers and scientists together
2.
Develop key research questions
3.
Develop collaborative research partnerships
Fish bones as a “frame” work for needs assessment
Key questions identified – no priorities attached
Workshop format
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Industry presentations
Scientific presentations
Round-tables – industry and scientist
working groups
(Oysters, mussels, clams, scallops)
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Fish-bones “Needs analysis”
Fish Bones
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An informal collaborative process to
determine the potential causes of
mortality
Split into “interest-based” working groups
Nominate a recorder with good handwriting to draw the fish
Student audio recorder
Everyone must contribute
Time – 1 hour
Final session – review of each working
group
Fish bones
Drilling down through the husbandry process
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Head – identify mortality issue e.g. tray culture oyster
mortality
Skeleton – identify elements of culture process (e.g. seed
sorting, year 1 on-grow, grading, tumbling, year 2 ongrow)
Ribs –identify main factors affecting each stage of culture
process (e.g. grading seed)
Riblets (level 1) – identify factors affecting each of the main
factors (hand grading, machine grading)
Riblets (level 2) - identify factors affecting each of the
Level 1Riblets (e.g. duration of air exposure during the
grading process)
Discuss potential causes of mortality and Circle those
factors of highest priority for research
Formulate a research question (s)
Culture induced
mortality
Tray culture
Oyster mortality
Seed
delivery
Seed
grading
On-grow
summer
Nature induced
mortality
grading/
tumbling
on-grow
winter
Grading
mechanism
Tray culture oyster mortality
Culture induced
Speed
hand
experience
Inventory
validation
machine
duration
Inventory
control
Seed
delivery
Seed
grading
Water temp
Air temp
Duration exposure
before grading
predators
HAB’s
Duration
exposure after
grading
salinity
D.O.
Nature induced
Culture induced mortality
Density
Genetics
Ploidy
Tray-type
De-fouling
schedule
Year-1
On-grow
Bio-fouling
parasites
nutrition
HAB’s
predators
Nature induced mortality
Research Question
Culture induced mortality
Grading
mechanism
hand
What is the effect of
of air temperature
and exposure interval
on survival?
perience
Tray culture
machine
Oysters mortality
duration
Seed
delivery
Seed
grading
On-grow
summer
grading/
tumbling
Water temp
Air temp
uration exposure
efore grading
uration
xposure after
ading
salinity
D.O.
Nature induced mortality
on-grow
winter
Shellfish Mortality Workshop
Oyster Research Questions
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Effect of tumbling – duration, frequency
timing/seasonality effects on survival, growth,
shelf-life
Effect of putting damaged/dying oysters back
into rearing containers
Background water quality monitoring for
correlation/coincidence with survival/growth
Fouling – management practices for
prevention/reduction
BMP’s for seed production, seed quality
assessment standards
Genetics/bloodstock management BMP’s
(tracking)
Shellfish Mortality Workshop
Clam Research Questions
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(manilas and geoducks)
Genetics – brood stock
Health- product from hatchery and
monitoring algae
Growth – increase rate
Mortality – factors, increase survival,
husbandry tools
Regulations – management systems
Optimum seed size – cost to survival ratio
Shellfish Mortality Workshop –
Scallop Research Questions
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Identify phytoplankton species
Establish phytoplankton monitoring
Culture species and determine physiological
response/toxicity at various life stages
Size of phytoplankton ingested by various life
stages
Determine conditions (temperature, food
concentration) for holding young spat (over
winter)
Improved environmental monitoring
(temperature, salinity, food, current)
Shellfish Mortality Workshop
Mussel Research Questions
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Which is the best species for B.C. (i.e. gallos,
edulis) and is it site related?
Evaluate genetic composition of seed available
Develop a site characterization and success
evaluation (framework) – consider technology
evaluation within this assessment
What is the spawning trigger and can it be
prevented?
Does winter spawning cause mortality?
When is the best time and what is the best size
to put mussels into trays?
Fouling management practices – avoid fouling
especially barnacles. Is sinking an option? When,
how deep, site variation (temporal, spatial)
Conclusion
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Process worked
Great lists
No priorities
Need to go further (Phase 2)
One over-arching issue – the need to
conduct environmental and health
monitoring at regular intervals
Goal
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To develop and test a workable,
effective and repeatable workshop
template for R&D priority setting
Apply “process” knowledge gained in
Brainstorming workshop and
Mortality workshop to this process
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