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Meat, Fish, and Poultry

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Meat, Fish, and Poultry
Foods I
Objective 2.05
Meat, Fish, and Poultry
п‚® Types
п‚® Red
meat
Beef
п‚® Pork
п‚®
п‚® Poultry
Chicken
п‚® Turkey
п‚®
п‚® Fish
Shellfish
п‚® Finfish
п‚®
Meat
п‚®
Meat
п‚®
The edible portion of mammals
п‚®
Includes muscle, fat, bone, connective tissue, and water
пЃ¬
п‚®
Elastin
пЃ¬ Very tough, elastic, and yellowish connective tissue
пЃ¬ Found in ligaments and blood vessel walls
пЃ¬ Cannot be softened by heat
 To tenderize—cut, pound, or grind it
Major meat-producing animals are cattle,
swine,and sheep
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Cattle provide beef and veal
Swine provide pork
Sheep provide lamb and mutton
Meat
п‚®
Nutritional Value
п‚®
п‚®
Need 5 ВЅ oz of protein each day
High in protein
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Contain proteins essential for tissue building and repair
Good sources of iron, phosphorus, copper,
thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin
Fat content depends type and quality of the meat
п‚®
п‚®
Fat means flavor
Marbling
пЃ¬
п‚®
п‚®
Small white flecks of fat
Red meat is higher in saturated fat
Fish and chicken low in fat
Meat
п‚®
Beef
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Comes from cattle
over 12 months of
age
Distinct flavor and
firm texture
Usually bright, cherry
red in color with
creamy white fat
Meat
п‚®
Cuts of Meat (p. 511)
п‚®
Muscles receiving little
exercise are most tender
п‚®
Rib and loin muscles
пЃ¬
п‚®
Tender cuts use dry heat
cooking methods
пЃ¬ Sirloin, porterhouse, loin
chops
пЃ¬ Grill, roast, broiling, etc.
Muscles receiving more
exercise are less tender
п‚®
Leg and shoulder muscles
пЃ¬
Less tender cuts use moist
heat cooking methods
пЃ¬ Round steak, rump roast,
shoulder steak
пЃ¬ Stewing or braising
Meat
п‚®
Beef carcasses are classified according to age
and sex
п‚® Cuts of beef (p. 511)
п‚®
Sides of beef
п‚®
п‚®
Quarters of beef
п‚®
п‚®
Quarters are cut into smaller pieces
Retail cuts
п‚®
п‚®
Sides of beef are cut in half
Wholesale cuts
п‚®
п‚®
Carcass is cut lengthwise through the backbone into 2
halves
Wholesale cuts are cut into smaller pieces for the grocery
store
Cut of beef worksheet
Meat
п‚®
Pork
п‚®
The meat of swine
п‚®
п‚®
Meat is grayish pink to light
rose in color
Comes from animals that
are 7-12 months of age
п‚®
Typically tender meat due
to age
Meat
п‚® Pork
Products
п‚® Lard
п‚®
Pig fat
пЃ¬
Great for baked products
п‚® Ham
п‚®
Comes from pork leg
пЃ¬
п‚®
Cured and usually smoked
Bacon
пЃ¬
Smoked pork belly fat
пЃ¬ Canadian bacon is made from boneless pork
loins
Meat
п‚®
Storage
п‚®
Must be refrigerated
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Fresh meats should
be used within 3-5
days
Ground meats should
be used within 2
days.
For longer storage,
freeze the meat.
Meat
п‚®
Cooking
п‚®
Properly cooked
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Becomes firm
Fat melts
Connective tissue
softens
Checking for doneness
п‚®
Point at which meat has
cooked enough to make
it flavorful and safe to
eat
пЃ¬
Use of meat
thermometer
пЃ¬ Reduce risk of
food-borne
illness
Meat
п‚®
Cooking Methods
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Tender cuts
Kabobs
Large tender cuts
пЃ¬
Loin, rib, leg roasts
Frying
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Ground meats, bacon,
ham
Pan broiling
п‚®
Tender cuts to thin to
broil
Large, less tender cuts
Slow-Cooking
п‚®
п‚®
Large, less tender cuts
Pot roast
Pressure Cooking
Less tender cuts
Microwaving
п‚®
п‚®
Tender meat
пЃ¬
п‚®
п‚®
Roasting
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Tender cuts
Grilling
п‚®
Braising
п‚®
Broiling
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Moist heat method
Uniform in shape
Will not have crisp,
brown crust
Poultry
п‚®
Any bird raised for
food
п‚®
Most common types
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Chicken
Turkey
Duck
Goose
Older birds have
more fat than young
birds
п‚®
Young birds have
more tender meat.
Poultry
п‚®
Nutritional Value
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Good source of protein
Provides niacin, Vitamins B6,
B12, calcium, phosphorus,
iron, and other trace minerals
Lower in fat and calories than
red meat
п‚®
п‚®
Remove skin for lower fat
poultry
Dark vs. White meat
п‚®
Dark meat
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
п‚®
Contains more fat
More flavorful
Dark due to the fact the
animal uses it more
Poultry
п‚® Storage
п‚® Refrigerate
or freeze immediately after
purchase
Watch for juices
п‚® Use fresh poultry within 1-2 days
п‚®
п‚® How
to thaw poultry
Poultry
п‚®
Cooking
п‚®
Checking for doneness
п‚®
Placement of
thermometer
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
п‚®
Use an instant-read
thermometer for thin
pieces
Thickest part of meat
closest to body
 Don’t touch bone
Pink coloration
п‚®
Chemical reaction
occurs between the
poultry and gases in the
oven
Poultry
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Cooking Methods
п‚®
Broiling
п‚®
п‚®
Quickest cooking
method
Grilling
п‚®
п‚®
Frying
Should be grilled until
brown but not charred
and the inside is well
done
п‚®
п‚®
Roasting
п‚®
Recommended for
duck, turkey, and goose
пЃ¬
Stuffing
пЃ¬ Recommend
cooking stuffing
separately
Braising
п‚®
п‚®
Used for tough, mature
birds
Slow-Cooking
п‚®
п‚®
Any bird too tough to
cook with a dry heat
method
Pressure-Cooking
п‚®
п‚®
Usually floured or
breaded first to keep
from drying out
Deep fry, pan fry, or
oven fry
Flavors have time to
develop and blend
Microwaving
п‚®
п‚®
Won’t brown
Usually cooked in a
sauce for favor and
color
Fish and Shellfish
п‚®
Fish aka Finfish
п‚®
п‚®
Shellfish or Crustaceans
п‚®
п‚®
Have fins and a center
spine with bones
Have a shell but no spine or
bones
Found in…
п‚®
Freshwater
п‚®
Water is not salty
пЃ¬
п‚®
Lakes, rivers, streams,
and ponds
Saltwater
п‚®
Comes from oceans and
seas
Fish and Shellfish
п‚® Types
of …
п‚® Fish
п‚®
Low-fat fish
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
п‚®
Have less than 5 g of fat per 3 ВЅ oz
Flesh is white with delicate texture and mild flavor
пЃ¬ Bass, carp, catfish, cod, haddock, pike, perch,
whiting
Fatty fish
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Have more than 5 g of fat per 3 ВЅ oz
Flesh is firm with a deeper color and stronger flavor
than low-fat fish
Higher in calories
пЃ¬ Herring, mackerel, salmon, tuna, rainbow trout
Fish
Herring
Halibut
Carp
Salmon
Pike
Tuna
Fish and Shellfish
п‚®
Types of…
п‚®
Shellfish
п‚®
Crustaceans
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
п‚®
Have long bodies and
jointed limbs
Covered with a shell
пЃ¬ Crabs, crayfish,
lobsters, and
shrimp
Mollusks
пЃ¬
Have soft bodies
covered by rigid shell
пЃ¬ Clams, mussels,
oysters, scallops,
and squid
Shellfish
Oyster
Shrimp
Lobster
Crab
Scallops
Squid
Crayfish
Fish and Shellfish
п‚®
Mercury in fish
п‚®
Absorbed by plankton and passed from fish to
predatory fish
п‚®
Harmful to pregnant women and children
пЃ¬
п‚®
Largest amounts in the largest fish
п‚®
п‚®
Eat no more than 12 oz per week
Shark, swordfish, king mackerel
Safe to eat fish
п‚®
Chunk light tuna, salmon, pollock, catfish, sardines,
herring
Fish and Shellfish
п‚®
Buying Fish and
Shellfish
п‚®
Judge appearance,
aroma, and touch
п‚®
Fish
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
пЃ¬
Shiny skin and
glistening color
Clear full eyes
Bright red or pink
gills
Mild, fresh aroma
like the ocean or
seaweed
Skin should spring
back when pressed
Fish and Shellfish
п‚®
Buying Fish and Shellfish
п‚®
Live clams, oysters, and
mussels
п‚®
Shells tightly closed, moist,
and intact
пЃ¬
п‚®
Scallops
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Look moist but not liquid
Fresh ocean smell
Live lobsters and crabs
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Tap and should close
Dark bluish-green until
cooked and then turn red
Live active with legs
moving
Tail curls under when
picked up
Shrimp
п‚®
п‚®
Deveined
Sold without intestinal tract
Fish and Shellfish
п‚®
Cuts of Fish p. 536
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Fish sold as caught
Most perishable
Scales and internal
organs must be
removed
Drawn
п‚®
Whole fish with
scales, gills, and
internal organs
removed
Dressed
п‚®
Whole
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Fillets
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Drawn fish with head,
tail, and fins removed
Sides of fish
Usually boneless
Cut lengthwise away
from bones and
backbone
Steaks
п‚®
п‚®
Cross sections cut from
large, dressed fish
May contain backbone
and ribs
Fish and Shellfish
Fish and Shellfish
п‚®
Storage
п‚®
Highly perishable
п‚®
Fish
пЃ¬
п‚®
Refrigerate or freeze
immediately
пЃ¬ Use within 1-2
days of purchase
пЃ¬ Watch out for
juices
пЃ¬ Cross
contamination
Shellfish
пЃ¬
Refrigerate in
containers covered
with clean, damp cloth
пЃ¬ Can live for a
few days in
these conditions
Fish and Shellfish
п‚®
Cooking Methods
п‚®
п‚®
Must be turned during
cooking
Should be able to
hold shape
пЃ¬
п‚®
пЃ¬
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Whole or dressed fish
Whole or dressed fish
Braising
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Delicate way of
preparing fish
Steaming
Tuna and salmon
Baking
п‚®
Whole or dressed fish
At least 1 inch thick
Grilling
п‚®
Poaching
п‚®
Broiling
п‚®
п‚®
п‚®
Adds flavor and color
Careful not to
overcook
Frying
п‚®
п‚®
Fry in pan
Deep fry
пЃ¬
Breaded or batter
dipped
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