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sp06 fish dissection

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Fish Dissection
Image from:
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif
NOTOCHORD
Notochord:
flexible rod
Helps organize
developing cells in
embryo
Replaced by spinal cord
in most vertebrates
http://www.xenbase.org/xmmr/Marker_pages/notochord/Tor70stg22.jpg
DORSAL NERVE CORD
Spinal cord forms along dorsal side
Images from:
http://www.nvo.com/jin/nssfolder/scrapbookanatomy/dorsal%20nerve%20cord.jpg
http://www.ekinos.com.ar/horse.jpg
PHARYNGEAL POUCHES
Become gills in
some
vertebrates
Become back of
throat and
inner ears in
humans
http://www-biol.paisley.ac.uk/courses/Tatner/biomedia/subunits/notoc.htm
POST ANAL TAIL
Human Embryo
32 days old
http://www.evcforum.net/RefLib/EvidencesMacroevolution2_files/human_embryo.jpg
Pharyngeal arches
appear during 4th week.
Tail disappears at
approximately 8 weeks
CHORDATES:
NOTOCHORD
PHARYNGEAL POUCHES
POST ANAL TAIL
DORSAL NERVE CORD
VERTEBRATES:
ALL CHORDATE CHARACTERISTICS PLUS:
Bones or cartilage around a dorsal nerve cord
Cranium (skull) to protect brain
Endoskeleton made of bone or cartilage
Closed circulatory system
Ventral heart
There are over 30,000 species of fish
http://t3.preservice.org/T0210463/images/fish-chart.jpg
Images from:
http://www.eslkidstuff.com/images/shark.gif
http://www.miamisci.org/oceans/coralreef/predators/mantaray.gif
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BioBK/comparison.gif
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif
Ray-finned
have spines in fins
(no bones)
Lobe-finned
Have short stubby limbs;
bones in fins
Images from:
http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BioBK/comparison.gif
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/trimethylamine/fish.gif
Coelocanth
Lobe fin fish
Australian lung fish
http://scienceblogs.com/zooillogix/2007/12/results_of_our_weekly_readers.ph
http://www.fishingfury.com/20080612/the-oldest-living-fish/
http://www.nicerweb.com/sketches/video/BBC-LifeOnEarth/2.6_InvasionOfTheLand/LOBE-FIN.JPG
RAYS- Thin spines in fins
LOBE FINNED FISH
are believed to be ancestors to
amphibians
Scientists believe
other vertebrates
evolved from BONY
LOBE-FINNED fish
BONY FISH
CHARACTERISTICS
Endoskeleton of bone
Scales & fins
Lungs or swim bladder
ENDOSKELETON
FISH
LATIN meaning
ANIMALIA
KINGDOM _____________
PHYLUM ____________________________
CHORDATA
VERTEBRATA “backbone”
SUBPHYLUM ___________________________
OSTEICHTHYES
“bony
fish”
CLASS _______________________________
DORSAL
POSTERIOR
ANTERIOR
VENTRAL
CEPHALIZATION
BILATERAL SYMMETRY
Integumentary
Scalesdecrease water resistance
protection
growth rings increase with age
Coloration-darker on top/lighter on bottom
Body Shape-streamlined
RAYS- protection from predators
OPERCULUM
Water goes in through mouth
out through slit behind operculum
Nostrils-dead end pockets
smell-important
Eye-no eyelid
Mouth-teeth don’t chew
Ears- not external
Anterior Dorsal
Posterior Dorsal
Pectoral
Caudal
Pelvic
Anal
LATERAL LINE
http://www.flushing.k12.mi.us/srhigh/tippettl/biology/perch/index.html
Senses vibrations & water pressure
ANUS exit for digestive waste
UROGENITAL OPENING (PORE)
exit for urine & eggs or sperm
INTERNAL
STRUCTURES
RESPIRATORY
Gill Arch
Gill
Filaments
COUNTERCURRENT FLOW
Diagram by Riedell
COUNTERCURRENT FLOW
GAS EXCHANGE IN GILLS
FUNCTIONS OF GILLS
1. Gas exchange
2. Excrete Nitrogen waste as
ammonia
3. OSMOREGULATION
regulate ion/water balance
HYPER, HYPO, ISOTONIC?
Image from: http://www.agriteach.com/lessonfiles/sample/perchdissect.ppt
Image by Riedell/VanderwalВ©2005
OVARY-makes eggs
Image by Riedell/VanderwalВ©2005
TESTES-make sperm
REPRODUCTION
MOST FISH HAVE:
• EXTERNAL FERTILIZATION
• DIRECT DEVELOPMENT
BABY FISH = fry
http://www.arthursclipart.org/biologya/biology/fish%20spawning.gif
SWIM BLADDER
controls buoyancy
Image by Riedell/VanderwalВ©2005
LIVER
& improved digestive gland
Image by Riedell/VanderwalВ©2005
• LIVER (improved digestive gland)
Makes bile used by intestine
Stores glycogen
Stores vitamins
(especially oil soluble ones- A & D)
Processes TOXINS for removal
by excretory system
(including nitrogen waste made by cells)
• GALL BLADDER
Stores bile made by liver
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Diagram by Riedell/VanderwalВ©2005
STOMACH
Cardiac & Pyloric
Image by Riedell/VanderwalВ©2005
STOMACH
1. Add acid and digestive juices
2. Starts digestion
3. Grind and mash food
INTESTINE
1. First section receives bile from liver
(called DUODENUM)
2. Finishes digestion
3. Absorbs nutrients
4. Collect and remove digestive waste
Finger-like extensions inside (VILLI)
increase surface area for greater absorption of nutrients
INTESTINE
VILLI
Tiny finger-like extensions inside
intestine increase surface area for
greater absorption of nutrients
http://neuromedia.neurobio.ucla.edu/campbell/epithelium/wp_images/107%20villi.jpg
PYLORIC CAECA
Contain microorganisms (bacteria) to break
down plant material
Image by Riedell/VanderwalВ©2005
DUODENUM
Receives bile from liver
Image by Riedell/VanderwalВ©2005
Image by Riedell/VanderwalВ©2005
PANCREAS
(Digestive & Endocrine functions)
1. MAKES TRYPSIN for intestine
(digests proteins)
2. MAKES 2 hormones
to regulate blood sugar
INSULIN
(cells take up & store glucose)
GLUCAGON
(cells release stored glucose to blood)
Diagram by Riedell
Diagram by Riedell
HEART
Atrium receives blood from Sinus venosus
Ventricle – pumping chamber
Conus arteriosus-smoothes flow of blood out of heart
2 CHAMBER HEART
1 LOOP system
SINGLE loop
CLOSED circulation
http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20102/Bio%20102%20lectures/Animal%20Diversity/Deuterostomes/echinode.htm
• ARTERIES carry blood
AWAY from the heart
• Capillaries connect
arteries and veins
(gas exchange occurs here)
• VEINS carry blood
returning to the heart
http://www.fotosearch.com/bthumb/LIF/LIF152/CAR09003.jpg
SPLEENProduces new RBC’s
Processes & destroys old worn out RBC’s
Stores RBC’s for release when needed
Image by Riedell/VanderwalВ©2005
KIDNEY
Collects and removes nitrogen waste (ammonia)
Osmoregulation –maintain water/ion balance
Image by Riedell/VanderwalВ©2005
URINARY BLADDER
Stores urine made by kidneys
SWIM (Air) BLADDER
Receives gases from bloodstream
Controls buoyancy
GALL BLADDER
Stores bile made by liver
UROGENITAL PORE
shared by excretory & reproductive systems
Diagram by Riedell
ANUS – for digestive waste
BRAIN
Image modified from:
http://www.flushing.k12.mi.us/srhigh/tippettl/biology/perch/index.html
BRAIN
OPTIC TECTUM
Receives and processes info from
visual, auditory (hearing) , and lateral line
system
BRAIN
CEREBRUM
• controls higher thinking
(memory, learning, reasoning, problem solving)
• integrates info from other brain parts
BRAIN
OLFACTORY
BULBS
• Smell
BRAIN
OLFACTORY NERVES
• Smell
BRAIN
CEREBELLUM
• Motor (muscle) coordination
• Balance
BRAIN
MEDULLA
OBLONGATA
• Relay center for sensory info from body
• Controls “Autonomic” body organs
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