Southwest Asia: Human Environment Interaction Unit 7: Chapter 21, section 3 Pages 495-499 TodayвЂ™s Objectives The student is expected to: 1. Examine the procurement and distribution of water resources in Southwest Asia. 2. Describe the formation, production and movement of oil in the region. Main Ideas вЂў Water is critical to regional physical survival and economic development. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qanat вЂў Discovery of oil increased the global economic importance of Southwest Asia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ShellMartinez-refi.jpg#file Fresh Water вЂў Most critical resource in region вЂў Available in small amts & w/o consistent supply вЂў Sound: http://www.grsites.com Dams & Irrigation Systems вЂў Lg. pop.пѓ Lg. scale farming вЂў Farming requires irrigation вЂў H2O for irrigation comes from man-made lakes created by dams вЂў Dams also provide hydroelectricity Ataturk Dam, Turkey http://www.adiyamanli.org/ataturk_dam.htm Controversy Over Water вЂў Countries downstream from the dam lose the use of the water for irrigation or hydroelectricity. вЂў Land is lost by rising water behind the dam вЂў Land downstream no longer receives riverвЂ™s sediment http://www.adiyamanli.org/ataturk_dam.htm Water Systems вЂў Drip Irrigation: small pipes/hoses that slowly drip water just above the ground to conserve water used for crops. вЂў http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drip_irrigation Water Systems Irrigation canal Noria water wheel used to lift water from river to fields Qanat underground bricklined tunnels http://en.wikipedia.org Modern Water Technology вЂў Desalinization: removal of salt from ocean water, done at a technically sophisticated water treatment plant. вЂў However, some desalinated water may be too salty for irrigation, so itвЂ™s used in sewage systems & industrial uses. вЂў http://www.gewater.com/images/multimedia /desal/main_ie.html (intro only) Oil from the Sand вЂў SW Asia contains ~1/2 of all the worldвЂ™s petroleum reserves. вЂў Petroleum products are an important part of the worldвЂ™s economy. вЂў SW Asia is a VERY important region economically. http://maps101.com/Application/Catalog/Product.aspx?cid=60&pid=1100 Forming Petroleum вЂў Formed millions of years ago when an ancient sea covered SW Asia. вЂў Microscopic plants & animals lived in the sea & died in the water. вЂў Remains sank into the mud below. вЂў Pressure & heat transformed the material into hydrocarbons, the chemical basis of oil & natural gas. вЂў Oil & nat. gas are trapped in the microscopic pores of rock. вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў Middle East All-Operations Facts: http://www.chevron.com/operations/middle_east/map.asp 1: Saudi Arabia вЂ” Company recorded first Saudi Arabia oil discovery in 1938. 2: Kuwait вЂ” Discovered Kuwait's Burgan Field, world's second-largest, in 1938. Technical Services Agreement assures continued technology progress. 3: Saudi Arabia and Kuwait вЂ” In the onshore Partitioned Neutral Zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, crude oil total production has reached 3 billion barrels. 4: Saudi Arabia вЂ” At Al Jubail, built the Kingdom's first privately financed major petrochemical plant 5: Bahrain вЂ” Bahrain's first oil discovery in 1932. 6: Qatar вЂ” Qatar activities include world-scale polyethylene complex and five-year onshore exploration. Transporting Oil вЂў Crude Oil pumped from the ground must be moved to the refinery. вЂў Pipelines transport the crude oil to refineries or ports where oil is refined. вЂў Lines are located near existing ports or other transportation markets, especially the Persian Gulf, Red Sea and Med. Sea. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pipeline_transport Risks of Transporting Oil вЂў 1991January 26 - KUWAIT - An estimated 240 million gallons of oil were spilled from terminals, tankers and oil wells during the final phase of the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. вЂў http://www.marinergroup.com/oil-spill-history.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spill Check for Understanding Copy & answer these questions: 1. What is the most critical resource in SW Asia? 2. What are some ways water is supplied? 3. Why might transporting oil be risky?