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Southwest Asia: Human Environment Interaction

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Southwest Asia:
Human Environment
Interaction
Unit 7: Chapter 21,
section 3
Pages 495-499
Today’s Objectives
The student is expected to:
1. Examine the procurement and distribution
of water resources in Southwest Asia.
2. Describe the formation, production and
movement of oil in the region.
Main Ideas
• Water is critical to
regional physical
survival and
economic
development.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qanat
• Discovery of oil
increased the global
economic importance
of Southwest Asia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:ShellMartinez-refi.jpg#file
Fresh Water
• Most critical
resource in
region
• Available in
small amts &
w/o
consistent
supply
•
Sound: http://www.grsites.com
Dams & Irrigation Systems
• Lg. pop.пѓ Lg. scale
farming
• Farming requires
irrigation
• H2O for irrigation
comes from man-made
lakes created by dams
• Dams also provide
hydroelectricity
Ataturk Dam, Turkey
http://www.adiyamanli.org/ataturk_dam.htm
Controversy Over Water
• Countries downstream
from the dam lose the
use of the water for
irrigation or
hydroelectricity.
• Land is lost by rising
water behind the dam
• Land downstream no
longer receives river’s
sediment
http://www.adiyamanli.org/ataturk_dam.htm
Water Systems
• Drip Irrigation:
small pipes/hoses
that slowly drip
water just above
the ground to
conserve water
used for crops.
•
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drip_irrigation
Water Systems
Irrigation canal
Noria water wheel used to
lift water from river to fields
Qanat
underground
bricklined
tunnels
http://en.wikipedia.org
Modern Water Technology
• Desalinization: removal of salt from ocean
water, done at a technically sophisticated
water treatment plant.
• However, some desalinated water may be
too salty for irrigation, so it’s used in
sewage systems & industrial uses.
• http://www.gewater.com/images/multimedia
/desal/main_ie.html (intro only)
Oil from the Sand
• SW Asia contains ~1/2
of all the world’s
petroleum reserves.
• Petroleum products
are an important part
of the world’s
economy.
• SW Asia is a VERY
important region
economically.
http://maps101.com/Application/Catalog/Product.aspx?cid=60&pid=1100
Forming Petroleum
• Formed millions of
years ago when an
ancient sea covered
SW Asia.
• Microscopic plants &
animals lived in the
sea & died in the
water.
• Remains sank into the
mud below.
• Pressure & heat
transformed the
material into
hydrocarbons, the
chemical basis of oil &
natural gas.
• Oil & nat. gas are
trapped in the
microscopic pores of
rock.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Middle East All-Operations Facts: http://www.chevron.com/operations/middle_east/map.asp
1: Saudi Arabia — Company recorded first Saudi Arabia oil discovery in 1938.
2: Kuwait — Discovered Kuwait's Burgan Field, world's second-largest, in 1938. Technical Services Agreement
assures continued technology progress.
3: Saudi Arabia and Kuwait — In the onshore Partitioned Neutral Zone between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, crude
oil total production has reached 3 billion barrels.
4: Saudi Arabia — At Al Jubail, built the Kingdom's first privately financed major petrochemical plant
5: Bahrain — Bahrain's first oil discovery in 1932.
6: Qatar — Qatar activities include world-scale polyethylene complex and five-year onshore exploration.
Transporting Oil
• Crude Oil pumped from
the ground must be
moved to the refinery.
• Pipelines transport the
crude oil to refineries or
ports where oil is refined.
• Lines are located near
existing ports or other
transportation markets,
especially the Persian
Gulf, Red Sea and Med.
Sea.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pipeline_transport
Risks of Transporting Oil
• 1991January 26 - KUWAIT - An estimated 240
million gallons of oil were spilled from terminals,
tankers and oil wells during the final phase of the
Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.
•
http://www.marinergroup.com/oil-spill-history.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_spill
Check for Understanding
Copy & answer these questions:
1. What is the most critical resource in SW
Asia?
2. What are some ways water is supplied?
3. Why might transporting oil be risky?
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