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The First Global Age: Europe and Asia

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The First Global Age: Europe
and Asia
By: Akeya Hinkson A Period
The Search for Spices
Europeans Explore the Seas
• The Crusades introduced Europeans to many luxury goods from
• When the Mongol empire united much of Asia, Asian goods flowed
to Europe along overland trade routes.
• The Black Death and the breakup of the Mongol empire destroyed
• The most valued items were spices, such as cinnamon, cloves,
nutmeg, and pepper.
• Spices were used to preserve food, add flavor to dried or salted
foods, and make medicines and perfumes.
• The chief source of spices was the Moluccas, an island chain in
present-day Indonesia, which Europeans called Spice Islands.
• In the 1400s, Muslim and Italian
merchants controlled most trade between
Asia and Europe.
• To gain direct access to the riches of Asia,
Portugal and Spain, sought a route to Asia
that bypassed the Mediterranean.
• Improvements in technology helped
Europeans conquer the vast oceans of the
Portugal Sails Eastward
• Portugal led the way in exploration.
• The Portuguese seized Ceuta on the North African coast.
• Henry the Navigator gathered many sea experts for an exploration
of the western coast of Africa.
• After Henry died, Bartholomeu Dias continued Henry’s journey and
rounded the southern tip of Africa.
• The tip became known as the Cape of Good Hope, it opened the
way for a sea route to Asia.
• In 1497, Vasco da Gama led four ships that reached the great spice
port of Calicut on the west coast of India.
• In 1502, he forced a treaty of friendship on the ruler of Calicut.
• As a result, the Portuguese seized key ports around the Indian
Ocean to create a vast trading empire.
Columbus Sails to the West
• In 1492, Columbus sailed west with three
ships: the Pinta, the Nina, and the Santa
• Columbus found a route to continents
previously unknown to them.
• Spain and Portugal pressed rival claims to
the land Columbus explored.
• Pope Alexander IV created the Line of
Demarcation, dividing the non-European
world into two zones (Eastern and
• The Search Continues
• Ferdinand Magellan charted a passage
known as the Strait of Magellan.
• He renamed the Balboa’s South Sea, the
Pacific Ocean.
• The Spanish hailed Magellan’s crew the
first people to sail around the world when
they reached Seville.
• The European age of exploration set off a
period of growing global interdependence
that still continues today.
• As trade increased, conflicts between
Europe and other civilizations would
become more pronounced.
• Many conflicts emerged in Asia.
Diverse Traditions of Southeast
Geography of Southeast Asia
• Southeast Asia is made up of two major regions.
• First, mainland Southeast Asia, several peninsulas that jut south between
India and China.
• Second, island Southeast Asia, more than 20,000 islands scattered
between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.
• Separated from the rest of Asia by mountains and high plateaus.
• Southeast Asia’s river valleys were home to early civilizations; They are: the
Irrawaddy, Chao Phraya, Mekong, and Red.
• Island Southeast Asia is a seaborne trade between China and India.
• Monsoons, shaped trading patterns in the southern seas.
• Southeast Asian ports became important centers of trade and culture.
• International trade network linked India, Southeast Asia, and China to East
Africa and the Middle East.
• The key products of Southeast Asia were spices.
Impact of India
• Buddhism was one of the many exports from India that had an effect
on the people of Southeast Asia.
• Buddhist monks and scholars introduced Theravada beliefs.
• Trade brought prosperity as merchants exchanged products.
• Indians carried a third religion after Hinduism and Buddhism, that
Asians were introduced to, that was Islam.
• Traders spreaded Islamic beliefs and Muslim civilization throughout
the islands of Indonesia and as far east as the Philippines.
• The prevalence of Islam in lands surrounding the Indian Ocean
contributed to the growth of a stable, thriving trade network.
New Kingdoms and Empires
• The blend of Indian influences with local
cultures produced a series of kingdoms
and cultures in Southeast Asia.
• The new kingdoms and empires were
know as: the kingdom of Pagan, the
Khmer Empire, and the empire of Srivijaya
Vietnam Emerges
• The heart of northern Vietnam was the Red River delta.
• The river irrigated fertile rice fields, which provided food
for a growing population.
• In 111 B.C., Han armies conquered the Vietnam region.
• During that time, the Vietnamese absorbed Confucian
• Theravada, Mahayana, and Daoism helped shape
Vietnamese society.
• In 939, as the Tang dynasty collapsed in China, Vietnam
was able to break free from China.
European Footholds in Southeast
Asia and India
Portugal’s Empire in the East
• Portugal was the first European power to gain a foothold in Asia.
• In 1510, they seized the island of Goa off the coast of India, making
their major military and commercial base.
• Albuquerque then moved to end Muslim power and turn the Indian
Ocean into a “Portuguese lake.”
• In 1511, Albuquerque took Malacca, massacring the city’s Muslims
and making the Europeans hated and feared.
• In less then 50 years, the Portuguese had built a trading empire with
military and merchant outposts, rimming the southern seas.
• For most of the 1500s, Portugal controlled the spice trade between
Europe and Asia.
• Despite their sea power, the Portuguese remained on the fringe of
Asian trade.
Rise of the Dutch
• The Dutch were the first Europeans to challenge
Portuguese domination in Asia.
• The Netherlands soon fell under Spanish rule in
the early 1500s.
• Later, the Protestant northern provinces won
• The Dutch used their sea power to set up
colonies and trading posts around the world.
• In 1602, a group of wealthy Dutch merchants
formed the the Dutch East India Company.
Spain Seizes the Philippines
• While the Portuguese and Dutch set up
bases on the fringes of Asia, Spain took
over the Philippines.
• Within about 50 years, Spain had
conquered and colonized the islands.
• The Philippines became a key link in
Spain’s overseas trading empire.
Mughal India and European Traders
• Besides producing spices, India was the world leader in textile
• It exposed large quantities of silk and cotton cloth.
• The Mughal empire was larger, richer, and more powerful than any kingdom
in Europe.
• Several weak rules held the throne in the early 1700s.
• Corruption became widespread, and the central government eventually
• Both the English and French East India Companies made alliances with
local officials and independent rajahs.
• By the mid-1700s, the British and the French had become locked in a bitter
struggle for global power.
• In 1756, war between Britain and France erupted in Europe.
• The fighting soon spread, involving both nations’ lands in Asia and the
Encounters in East Asia
The Manchu Conquest
• In 1644, the victorious Manchu armies seized Beijing
and made it their capital.
• The Manchus set up a new dynasty called the Qing.
• He expanded China’s borders to rule the largest area in
the nation’s history.
• New crops from the Americas, such as potatoes, and
corn, boosted farm output, which in turn contributed to a
population boom.
• The Qing dynasty turned out to be the world’s greatest
Korea and Isolation
• The Choson dynasty, embraced Confucian
• Like the Chinese, Koreans felt that Confucian
learning was the most advanced in the world.
• A Japanese invasion in the 1590s and when the
Manchus conquered Korea before overrunning
Ming China, led the Koreans to turn inward.
Japan and Foreign Traders
• In 1543, the Portuguese reached Japan.
• A growing number of Japanese adopted Christianity.
• By 1638, the Tokugawas had barred all western merchants and
forbidden Japanese to travel abroad.
• Japan maintained its policy of strict isolation for more than 200
• Isolation had a profound effect on Japan.
• Without outside influence, Japanese culture turned inward.
• In 1853, Japan was forced to reopen contacts with the western
• Renewed relations unleashed an extraordinary period of change
that helped Japan emerged as a major world power.
Regents Questions
• 1. Korea greatly influenced the development of early
Japan by
• A. acting as a bridge for ideas from China
• B. providing Japan with the technology for
• C. serving as a barrier against Chinese aggression
• protecting Japan from early European exploration
Answer: Choice A
• 2. In Japan between 1603 and 1868, the most notable
action taken by the Tokugawa Shogunate was the
A. military conquest of China
B. development of extensive trade with the Americas
C. formation of cultural links with Europe
D. virtual isolation of the country from the outside world
Answer: Choice D.
• 3. Feudalism in Western Europe was similar to
feudalism in Japan in that
A. power was based on class relationships
B. equality among the social classes
C. direct democracy
D. monotheism
Answer: Choice A.
• 4. A valid generalization about early Japanese culture is
that Japan
• A. had a strong influence on the development of culture
in Korea
• B. spread Shinto throughout Asia
• C. maintained a uniquely individual culture while
borrowing much from other cultures
• D. imported almost all of its cultural ideas from China,
resulting in nearly identical cultures
Answer: Choice C.
• 5. Feudal societies are generally characterized
A. an emphasis on social order
B. a representative government
C. many economic opportunities
D. the protection of political rights
Answer: Choice A.
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