The First Global Age: Europe and Asia 1415-1796 By: Akeya Hinkson A Period The Search for Spices Europeans Explore the Seas вЂў The Crusades introduced Europeans to many luxury goods from Asia. вЂў When the Mongol empire united much of Asia, Asian goods flowed to Europe along overland trade routes. вЂў The Black Death and the breakup of the Mongol empire destroyed trade. вЂў The most valued items were spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, and pepper. вЂў Spices were used to preserve food, add flavor to dried or salted foods, and make medicines and perfumes. вЂў The chief source of spices was the Moluccas, an island chain in present-day Indonesia, which Europeans called Spice Islands. вЂў In the 1400s, Muslim and Italian merchants controlled most trade between Asia and Europe. вЂў To gain direct access to the riches of Asia, Portugal and Spain, sought a route to Asia that bypassed the Mediterranean. вЂў Improvements in technology helped Europeans conquer the vast oceans of the world. Portugal Sails Eastward вЂў Portugal led the way in exploration. вЂў The Portuguese seized Ceuta on the North African coast. вЂў Henry the Navigator gathered many sea experts for an exploration of the western coast of Africa. вЂў After Henry died, Bartholomeu Dias continued HenryвЂ™s journey and rounded the southern tip of Africa. вЂў The tip became known as the Cape of Good Hope, it opened the way for a sea route to Asia. вЂў In 1497, Vasco da Gama led four ships that reached the great spice port of Calicut on the west coast of India. вЂў In 1502, he forced a treaty of friendship on the ruler of Calicut. вЂў As a result, the Portuguese seized key ports around the Indian Ocean to create a vast trading empire. Columbus Sails to the West вЂў In 1492, Columbus sailed west with three ships: the Pinta, the Nina, and the Santa Maria. вЂў Columbus found a route to continents previously unknown to them. вЂў Spain and Portugal pressed rival claims to the land Columbus explored. вЂў Pope Alexander IV created the Line of Demarcation, dividing the non-European world into two zones (Eastern and Western) вЂў The Search Continues вЂў Ferdinand Magellan charted a passage known as the Strait of Magellan. вЂў He renamed the BalboaвЂ™s South Sea, the Pacific Ocean. вЂў The Spanish hailed MagellanвЂ™s crew the first people to sail around the world when they reached Seville. вЂў The European age of exploration set off a period of growing global interdependence that still continues today. вЂў As trade increased, conflicts between Europe and other civilizations would become more pronounced. вЂў Many conflicts emerged in Asia. Diverse Traditions of Southeast Asia Geography of Southeast Asia вЂў Southeast Asia is made up of two major regions. вЂў First, mainland Southeast Asia, several peninsulas that jut south between India and China. вЂў Second, island Southeast Asia, more than 20,000 islands scattered between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. вЂў Separated from the rest of Asia by mountains and high plateaus. вЂў Southeast AsiaвЂ™s river valleys were home to early civilizations; They are: the Irrawaddy, Chao Phraya, Mekong, and Red. вЂў Island Southeast Asia is a seaborne trade between China and India. вЂў Monsoons, shaped trading patterns in the southern seas. вЂў Southeast Asian ports became important centers of trade and culture. вЂў International trade network linked India, Southeast Asia, and China to East Africa and the Middle East. вЂў The key products of Southeast Asia were spices. Impact of India вЂў Buddhism was one of the many exports from India that had an effect on the people of Southeast Asia. вЂў Buddhist monks and scholars introduced Theravada beliefs. вЂў Trade brought prosperity as merchants exchanged products. вЂў Indians carried a third religion after Hinduism and Buddhism, that Asians were introduced to, that was Islam. вЂў Traders spreaded Islamic beliefs and Muslim civilization throughout the islands of Indonesia and as far east as the Philippines. вЂў The prevalence of Islam in lands surrounding the Indian Ocean contributed to the growth of a stable, thriving trade network. New Kingdoms and Empires вЂў The blend of Indian influences with local cultures produced a series of kingdoms and cultures in Southeast Asia. вЂў The new kingdoms and empires were know as: the kingdom of Pagan, the Khmer Empire, and the empire of Srivijaya Vietnam Emerges вЂў The heart of northern Vietnam was the Red River delta. вЂў The river irrigated fertile rice fields, which provided food for a growing population. вЂў In 111 B.C., Han armies conquered the Vietnam region. вЂў During that time, the Vietnamese absorbed Confucian ides. вЂў Theravada, Mahayana, and Daoism helped shape Vietnamese society. вЂў In 939, as the Tang dynasty collapsed in China, Vietnam was able to break free from China. European Footholds in Southeast Asia and India PortugalвЂ™s Empire in the East вЂў Portugal was the first European power to gain a foothold in Asia. вЂў In 1510, they seized the island of Goa off the coast of India, making their major military and commercial base. вЂў Albuquerque then moved to end Muslim power and turn the Indian Ocean into a вЂњPortuguese lake.вЂќ вЂў In 1511, Albuquerque took Malacca, massacring the cityвЂ™s Muslims and making the Europeans hated and feared. вЂў In less then 50 years, the Portuguese had built a trading empire with military and merchant outposts, rimming the southern seas. вЂў For most of the 1500s, Portugal controlled the spice trade between Europe and Asia. вЂў Despite their sea power, the Portuguese remained on the fringe of Asian trade. вЂў Rise of the Dutch вЂў The Dutch were the first Europeans to challenge Portuguese domination in Asia. вЂў The Netherlands soon fell under Spanish rule in the early 1500s. вЂў Later, the Protestant northern provinces won independence. вЂў The Dutch used their sea power to set up colonies and trading posts around the world. вЂў In 1602, a group of wealthy Dutch merchants formed the the Dutch East India Company. Spain Seizes the Philippines вЂў While the Portuguese and Dutch set up bases on the fringes of Asia, Spain took over the Philippines. вЂў Within about 50 years, Spain had conquered and colonized the islands. вЂў The Philippines became a key link in SpainвЂ™s overseas trading empire. Mughal India and European Traders вЂў Besides producing spices, India was the world leader in textile manufacturing. вЂў It exposed large quantities of silk and cotton cloth. вЂў The Mughal empire was larger, richer, and more powerful than any kingdom in Europe. вЂў Several weak rules held the throne in the early 1700s. вЂў Corruption became widespread, and the central government eventually collapsed. вЂў Both the English and French East India Companies made alliances with local officials and independent rajahs. вЂў By the mid-1700s, the British and the French had become locked in a bitter struggle for global power. вЂў In 1756, war between Britain and France erupted in Europe. вЂў The fighting soon spread, involving both nationsвЂ™ lands in Asia and the Americas. Encounters in East Asia The Manchu Conquest вЂў In 1644, the victorious Manchu armies seized Beijing and made it their capital. вЂў The Manchus set up a new dynasty called the Qing. вЂў He expanded ChinaвЂ™s borders to rule the largest area in the nationвЂ™s history. вЂў New crops from the Americas, such as potatoes, and corn, boosted farm output, which in turn contributed to a population boom. вЂў The Qing dynasty turned out to be the worldвЂ™s greatest empire. Korea and Isolation вЂў The Choson dynasty, embraced Confucian ideas. вЂў Like the Chinese, Koreans felt that Confucian learning was the most advanced in the world. вЂў A Japanese invasion in the 1590s and when the Manchus conquered Korea before overrunning Ming China, led the Koreans to turn inward. Japan and Foreign Traders вЂў In 1543, the Portuguese reached Japan. вЂў A growing number of Japanese adopted Christianity. вЂў By 1638, the Tokugawas had barred all western merchants and forbidden Japanese to travel abroad. вЂў Japan maintained its policy of strict isolation for more than 200 years. вЂў Isolation had a profound effect on Japan. вЂў Without outside influence, Japanese culture turned inward. вЂў In 1853, Japan was forced to reopen contacts with the western world. вЂў Renewed relations unleashed an extraordinary period of change that helped Japan emerged as a major world power. Regents Questions вЂў 1. Korea greatly influenced the development of early Japan by вЂў A. acting as a bridge for ideas from China вЂў B. providing Japan with the technology for industrialization вЂў C. serving as a barrier against Chinese aggression вЂў protecting Japan from early European exploration Answer: Choice A вЂў 2. In Japan between 1603 and 1868, the most notable action taken by the Tokugawa Shogunate was the вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў A. military conquest of China B. development of extensive trade with the Americas C. formation of cultural links with Europe D. virtual isolation of the country from the outside world Answer: Choice D. вЂў 3. Feudalism in Western Europe was similar to feudalism in Japan in that вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў A. power was based on class relationships B. equality among the social classes C. direct democracy D. monotheism Answer: Choice A. вЂў 4. A valid generalization about early Japanese culture is that Japan вЂў A. had a strong influence on the development of culture in Korea вЂў B. spread Shinto throughout Asia вЂў C. maintained a uniquely individual culture while borrowing much from other cultures вЂў D. imported almost all of its cultural ideas from China, resulting in nearly identical cultures Answer: Choice C. вЂў 5. Feudal societies are generally characterized by вЂў вЂў вЂў вЂў A. an emphasis on social order B. a representative government C. many economic opportunities D. the protection of political rights Answer: Choice A.