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Chapter 22 Notes- Human Geography of Southwest Asia

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Chapter 22 Notes- Human
Geography of Southwest Asia
Religion, Politics, & Oil
Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula
Islam- based on the teachings of Muhammad.
Monotheistic
Mosque- place of worship
All Muslims (followers of Islam) perform the 5
pillars.
Section 1: The Arabian
Peninsula
5 Pillars
1. Faith (Iman or Shahadah)- no God but Allah,
& Muhammad is messenger of Allah
2. Prayer (Salah)- praying 5x’s per day towards
Mecca
3. Charity (Zakah)- giving money to the poor.
Section 1: The Arabian
Peninsula
5 Pillars cont.4. Fasting (Saum)- during month of
Ramadan, do not eat or drink anything
between sunrise & sunset.
5. Pilgrimage (Hajj)- make pilgrimage to
Mecca once during life.
Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula
Theocratic- religious leaders control the
government.
many of the governments in the region are
this
Ayatollah- Muslim religious leader
Section 1: The Arabian
Peninsula
OPEC- Organization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesMembers set worldwide oil prices & production quotas
DON’T WRITE- Members include Algeria, Indonesia, Iran,
Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United
Arab Emirates, and Venezuela.
Which countries have the largest
reserves of crude oil?
Country
Crude oil reserves
(million barrels)
Saudi Arabia
262,697
Iraq
112,500
Iran
99,080
United Arab Emirates
97,800
Kuwait
96,500
Section 1: The Arabian Peninsula
Arabic WomenMost cover themselves from head to toe in a burqa (Arabic
covering)
• Modesty & being covered is believed to be pleasing to god.
Section 2: The Eastern
Mediterranean
3 major religions were all started
in Southwest Asia
Judaism, Christianity, & Islam
All 3 claim Jerusalem as a holy city.
Section 2:The Eastern Mediterranean
Jews- Jerusalem is holiest city
Holiest site- Western Wall (Wailing Wall)
Whole area is known as the Temple Mount
DON’T WRITE
•
•
•
•
•
First Temple built by King Solomon then destroyed
Temple rebuilt
Second Temple destroyed by the Romans
Only piece left standing is known as the Western Wall
No Jewish temple on site since 70 A.D.
Section 2: The Eastern
Mediterranean
DON’T WRITE
Christians cherish the land as the area
where Jesus Christ was crucified & for the
holy areas of the Church of the Holy
Sepulcher (where crucified) & Mount of the
Olives.
Section 2: The Eastern
Mediterranean
Islam claims Jerusalem as 3rd
holiest city behind Mecca &
Medina
Dome of the Rock- spot where
Muslims believe the Prophet
Muhammad rose into heaven
AKA- Haram Ash-Sharif (Temple
Mount)
Next to Western Wall
Site of frequent clashes
between Muslims & Jews
Section 2: The Eastern
Mediterranean
Ottoman EmpireMuslim based
government, started
in Turkey
Lasted from 15201920 (�til end of WW1)
Section 2: The Eastern Mediterranean
Zionism- goal of the creation &
support of a Jewish homeland in
Palestine
DON’T WRITE
After WW1 Britain controlled
Palestine
Section 2: The Eastern
Mediterranean
After WW2 world sentiment favored
giving the Jews a national homeland.
May 14th, 1948 Israel was established.
Immediately Attacked
DON’T WRITE- Egypt, Syria, Lebanon,
Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, & Yemen
attacked.
Section 2: The Eastern
Mediterranean
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)formed to regain the land for Arabs
Political & Military means used
Section 3: The Northeast
The Kurds- ethnic group in Southwestern
Asia
Stateless nation
5,000+ were gassed to death by Saddam
Hussein’s army.
Saddam was executed for this
Section 3: The Northeast
Mesopotamia- many civilizations were
started here in the “land between the
rivers” (AKA The Fertile Crescent)
Sumer
Babylonia
Assyria
Chaldea
Hittites
Persia
Section 3: The
Northeast
Two main branches of Islam
Sunni Muslim- 83% of all
Muslims
Shi’ite Muslim
Section 3: The Northeast
Taliban- fundamentalist Muslim political
group in Afghanistan
•1955 Afghanistan asks US for military
ties, we say no
•Afghanistan looks to USSR,
•Pro-communist ideas were adopted
into the gov. and a Communist Party
was in place in Afghanistan
•1978 pro soviet groups staged a
coup and installed their own
puppet government
•1978 - New regime announces
changes such as equal rights for
women, land reforms..
•Protests result from these reforms
(pro-Islamic groups)
•1979 Soviets invade
•Afghan army collapses as revolts take
place all over, govt. asks for military aid
from US
•1980 - Resistance to
Soviet occupation
forms in Afghanistan &
Pakistan called the
mujahideen or “holy
warriors”,
• US CIA begins to
support these rebels
with arms supplied
through Pakistan
•10 long wasteful
years of war in
Afghanistan
•UN sponsored peace talks with
Afghanistan. Soviet Union,
Pakistan, and the US
•1996 - various factions fight for
control of the Afghan government,
•Many ethnic warlords and leaders
battle each other
•Taliban group – take charge by
bribing local warlords and making
false promises
•Taliban forces take the
capital of Kabul and
about 75% of the country
•make massive changes
• establish a very strict
form of Islamic law
•Brought major sweeping reforms,
reforms against women
No television, music or movies
No whistling or clapping
No dancing
No shorts
No photography
No smoking
Men must have a beard and wear a
head covering
Women:
•No jobs, must stay at home
•Must wear the burqa and be with a male
relative outside the house
•No schooling/education
•No revealing ankles/ no white socks
•No treatment by male doctors
•No make-up or brightly colored clothes
•No associating with male
shopkeepers
•No laughing loudly
•No high heels
•No driving
•No riding bicycles
•No washing clothes next to a river
unless a male relative is present
•Windows must be painted or
covered
Osama bin Laden
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