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ENVIRONMENT AND EAST ASIA

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Free Trade
Agreements in the
Asia-Pacific
Christopher M. Dent
University of Leeds
FTA Activity on the Rise…
• Global expansion of FTA activity and
regionalism since the early 1990s
• Europe and Latin America as early main
centres of new FTA activity
• East Asia, US and Oceania only start to catch
up from the late 1990s onwards
• Asia-Pacific witnesses the most intense
growth of FTA activity in the world system
during the 2000s
• FTAs have significantly shaped the AsiaPacific’s international economic relations and
business environment…
Figure 1.1 Global Map of FTAs by Region (by end of 1997)
(4)
Europe
Central and South
Asia
East
Asia
(0)
(6)
(40)
AsiaPacific
(7)
(8)
Pacific
America
(2)
North Africa and
Middle East
(6)
Sub-Saharan
Africa
Oceania
(1)
Western
Hemisphe re
FTAs in region
30+
21 – 30
11 – 20
0 – 10
(9)
FTAs between regions
10+
5– 9
3– 4
1– 2
(1)
(1)
Notes
1. Figures relate to FTAs signed under WTO Article XXIV and do not include �preferential agreements’
under the WTO’s �enabling clause’ for developing countries, or �service agreements’ under WTO Article
V.
2. Pacific America comprises those Western Hemisphere countries with a Pacific Ocean coastline. Central
and South Asia includes the Russia and Asian ex -Soviet republics, as well as the Commonwealth of
Independent States FTA. Europe includes the ex -Soviet republics of Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine.
3. Figures include customs unions. By this time, Europe was host to five customs union agreements
(European Community, EC – Malta, EC – Cyprus, EC – Andorra and Czech Republic – Slovak Republic)
and the EU / EC also had a customs union with Turkey. Similarly, the Western Hemisphere region was
host to three customs unions (CACM, CARICOM and MERCOSUR), Central Asia to on e (EAEC), and
Sub-Saharan Africa to one (SACU).
Source: WTO and author’s own research.
Figure 1.10 Global Map of FTAs by Region (by end of 2005)
(6)
(2)
(2)
(1)
Europe
Central and South
Asia
(43)
East
Asia
(2)
AsiaPacific
(8)
(11)
(38*)
(16)
(8)
(4)
Pacific
America
(4)
North Africa and
Middle East
(7)
(14)
(8)
(1)
(1)
Sub-Saharan
Africa
Oceania
(2)
Western
Hemisphe re
FTAs in region
30+
21 – 30
11 – 20
0 – 10
(24)
FTAs between regions
10+
5– 9
3– 4
1– 2
(2)
Notes
1. Figures relate to FTAs signed under WTO Article XXIV and do not include partial scope
agreements under the WTO’s �enabling clause’ for developing countries, or �service agreements’
under WTO Article V.
2. Pacific America comprises those Western Hemisphere countries with a Pacific Ocean coastline.
Central and South Asia includes the Russia and Asian ex -Soviet republics, as well as the
Commonwealth of Independent States FTA. Europe includes the ex -Soviet republics of Belarus,
Moldova and Ukraine.
3. Figures include customs unions. By this time, Europe was host to four customs union agreements
(European Union, EU – Malta, EU – Cyprus and EU – Andorra) and the EU also had a customs
union with Turkey. Similarly, the Western Hemisphere region was host to four customs unions
(Andean Community, CACM, CARICOM and MERCOSUR), Central Asia to one (EAEC), and
Sub-Saharan Africa to one (SACU).
* Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership (TPSEPA) FTA between Singapore, Chile, New
Zealand and Brunei counted as additional FTA link.
Source: WTO and author’s own research.
Figure 6 Asia-Pacific FTA Projects (before 1998)
NAFTA
Can
US
Mex - Northern
Triangle FTA
(ES, Gm, Hd)
AFTA
Mex
Brunei
Indonesia
Laos
Malaysia
Myanmar
Philippines
Singapore
Thailand
Vietnam
Gm
Nc
CR
Pa
Pe
Ch
Aus
CER
NZ
Close r Economic Relationship
Aus – Australia
Can – Canada
Ch – Chile
CR – Costa Rica
ES – El Salvador
Gm – Guatemala
Hd – Honduras
Mex – Mexico
Nc – Nicaragua
NZ – Ne w Ze aland
Pa – Panama
Pe – Pe ru
US – Unite d States
Proposed
Studying
Negotiating
Concluded / Signed
Regional FTA
Hd
ES
CACM
Figure 7 Asia-Pacific FTA Projects (by end of 2004)
J
NAFTA
Can
K
C
US
Mac
HK
T
Mex - Northern
Triangle FTA
(ES, Gm, Hd)
Mex
AFTA
CACM
Th
Gm
P
Nc
CR
Ma
Ind
Pa
S*
Hd
ES
CACM
Pe
Ch*
^
PICTA
AFTA
Col
NZ*
Aus
CER
Close r Economic Relationship
Notes: * Pacific-3 FTA negotiating parties, later expanding to
quadrilateral Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership
(TPSEPA) arrangement in 2005. ^ PICTA (Pacific Island
Countries Trade Agreement) involves the 14 Pacific Island
Countries.
FTA Phase Development
Aus – Australia
Br – Brunei
C – China
Can – Canada
Ch – Chile
CR – Costa Rica
ES – El Salvador
Hd - Honduras
Gm – Guatemala
HK – Hong Ko ng
Ind – I ndonesia
J – Japan
K – South Korea
Ma – Malaysia
Mac – Macao
Mex – Mexico
Nc - Nicaragua
NZ – New Zealand
P – Philippines
Pa – Panama
Pe – Peru
S – Singapore
T – Taiwan
Th – Thailand
US – United States
Proposed
Studying
Negotiating
Concluded / Signed
Regional FTA
Figure 8 Asia-Pacific FTA Projects (by end of 2008)
J
NAFTA
Can
K
C
US^
Mac
HK
T
Mex - Northern
Triangle FTA
(ES, Gm, Hd)
Mex
AFTA
CACM
Gm
Th
P
Nc
CR
Ma
Hd
ES
CACM
Ind
Pa
S*^
Vn
Pe ^
Br*^
Ch*^
PICTA
AFTA
Col
Aus ^
NZ*^
CER
Close r Economic Relationship
Notes: * Pacific-3 FTA expands to quadrilateral Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic
Partnership (TPSEPA) project including Brunei as full negotiating partner from April 2005.
^ TPSEPA then expands to Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) involving
Australia, Peru and the United States in negotiations from March 2009. PICTA (Pacific
Island Countries Trade Agreement) involves the 14 Pacific Island Countries.
Aus – Australia
Br – Brunei
C – China
Can – Canada
Ch – Chile
Col – Columbia
CR – Costa Rica
ES – El Salvador
Hd - Honduras
Gm – Guatemala
HK – Hong Ko ng
Ind – I ndonesia
J – Japan
K – South Korea
Ma – Malaysia
Mac – Macao
Mex – Mexico
Nc - Nicaragua
NZ – New Zealand
P – Philippines
Pa – Panama
Pe – Peru
S – Singapore
T – Taiwan
Th – Thailand
US – United States
Vn – Vietnam
FTA Phase Development
Proposed
Studying
Negotiating
Concluded / Signed
Regional FTA
The Evolving Nature of FTAs
• Traditionally, FTAs have primarily entailed the
•
•
elimination of conventional trade barriers (e.g.
tariffs) between signatory parties
Have been around for a while. Last great spurts of
FTA activity were 1860-1914 and the 1930s
However, the portrayal of FTAs found in
conventional economic textbooks are increasingly
outdated…
�tariffs, etc now as less significant features… more
now about commercial regulation and other
policy-related measures
пѓ�FTAs are becoming increasingly heterogeneous
�often �stretched’ into wider economic partnership
agreements
FTA Heterogeneity
• Each FTA is crafted in accordance to the political
•
•
•
economic interaction between the trade partners
concerned
Agreements can vary significantly in terms of:
пѓ�scope of commercial liberalisation
пѓ�implementation schedules and modalities
пѓ�commercial regulation provisions, e.g.
investment, IPR, government procurement,
rules of origin, standards
пѓ�economic co-operation provisions
пѓ�philosophical or ideational approach
Dominant trade partners can significantly
determine the overall framework and content
This is often in accordance to their preferred �FTA
model’
Key Trends in Asia-Pacific FTA
Activity
• The large majority of FTAs in the region are
•
•
•
•
bilateral, consistent with the global trend
Notwithstanding FTA heterogeneity, three main
FTAs models are evident: US, Japan, China/ASEAN
ASEAN as hub for quasi-regional FTAs: with
China, Japan, Korea, Aus/NZ, India
Plurilateral FTAs: Mexico– Northern Triangle
(2000) and TPSEPA (2005, expanding to TPP)
Many FTA projects are in effect dormant (e.g.
Mexico – Singapore), stalled (e.g. Japan – Korea),
or have been abandoned (e.g. US with many SE
Asia nations)
• Trade partner selection
•
•
•
•
•
пѓ�The club of ardent free trader nations: NZ,
Aus, US, Canada, Singapore, Chile, Panama
(Mexico, Korea, Peru as secondary members)
пѓ�Relatively small trade partners often selected
��Easy’ FTA partner options are running out…
In the US, the Obama Administration is far more
circumspect than its predecessor about FTAs
Japan, China and others are looking more to merge
existing FTAs into larger regional arrangements
rather than create new FTA partners
BUT… large regional FTAs may prove unrealistic
As result of the above, FTA activity in the AsiaPacific is slowing down…
Existing FTAs may be transformed into different
types of agreement, taking on new content, etc
Commercial Regulatory
Provisions in Asia-Pacific FTAs
• FTAs are increasingly focused on commercial
•
•
regulation: the rules and standards that determine
the regulatory framework in which the trade and
investment related activities of firms take place
Core generic areas:
пѓ�investment
пѓ�government procurement
пѓ�intellectual property rights (IPR)
пѓ�competition policy
пѓ�rules of origin (RoO)
пѓ�industrial and other standards
Sector-specific areas: financial services, telecoms, etc
• Ascendance of commercial regulatory provisions:
•
•
пѓ�tariffs and other conventional trade barriers have
fallen or become less important
пѓ�technological and policy developments: the rise
of services trade, open market competition for
infrastructure and professional services
пѓ�globalisation and the closer inter-linkage of trade
and investment
�foreign firm penetrability of the host country’s
domestic market in terms of business operations
as well as product sales
FTAs (and hence their rules and regulations) now
nominally cover around 40-50% of Asia-Pacific trade
US + Aus/NZ focused on regulatory rights, China
and ASEAN on regulatory co-operation, Japan,
Korea and Singapore a mix of the two
FTA Provisions
on IPR:
Singapore and
Thailand FTAs
FTA Partner
New Zealand
Japan
Australia
EFTA
United States
Jordan
India
South Korea
TPSEPA
Panama
China
Year
FTA Partner
Australia
New Zealand
Japan
Year
FTA Partner
AFTA
ACFTA (China)
KAFTA (Korea)
JACEP (Japan)
Year
2001
2002
2003
2003
2004
2005
2005
2006
2006
2006
2008
2004
2004
2008
2002
2004
2007
2008
35
1,089
633
1,589
8,738
24
120
679
128
-
545
96
95
-
п‚·
427
460
3,231
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п‚·
ASEAN-LEVEL
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
New varieties of plants
Regulated products (pharmaceuticals, agrichemicals)
Recourse for judicial review and compensation
from IPR infringment
Partially adopts IPR legislative text and principles
of FTA partner
Internet domain names
Protection of encrypted programme-carrying
satellite signals
Prevention of IPR-infringing exports
Storage of intellectual property in electronic media
Protection of undisclosed information
Control of anti-competitive practices in contractual
licences
Layout-designs (topographies) of integrated circuits
Patents
Industrial designs
Geographical indications
Trademarks
Copyright and related rights
Conformance to general principles of IPR
Stated compliance to existing WTO (TRIPS) /
WIPO agreements on IPR
Information exchange and transparency
commitments
Recourse or reference to WTO (TRIPS) rules only
No provisions
Word Count in FTA text
TRIPs Provision Areas
TRIPs-Plus
SINGAPORE
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
THAILAND
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
FTA Partner
New Zealand
Japan
Australia
EFTA
United States
Jordan
India
South Korea
TPSEPA
Panama
China^
FTA Partner
Australia
New Zealand
Japan
FTA Partner
AFTA / AIA
ACFTA (China)
KAFTA (Korea)
JACEP (Japan)
Year
2001
2002
2003
2003
2004
2005
2005
2006
2006
2006
2008
Year
2004
2004
2008
Year
2002
2004
2007
2008
1,306
4,586
3,718
2,088
8,371
4,624
4,653
4,482
-
1,955
-
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
2,826
3,126
4,567
п‚· п‚·
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п‚· п‚· п‚·
п‚· п‚· п‚·
п‚· * п‚·
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п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚·
п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
Compensation rights clause
Investor- state disputes settlement mechanism
Taxation exemption
Sectoral exemptions and limitations
Exceptions on government procurement
TRIMS-Plus
Exceptions on investor performance requirements
Safeguard measures on financial transfers during
periods of financial instability
Industrial policy assistance awarded exclusively to
domestic investors or investments
Environmental clause
Minimum standard of treatment clause
Subrogation clause
Prohibition of performance requirements
Prohibition of controls on investor international
financial transfers
Most Favoured Nation (MFN) treatment (in relation
to that already afforded to non-Parties)
Prohibition of nationalisation or expropriation of
assets
Prohibition of appointing key personnel (e.g. senior
managers) of particular nationality
National treatment principle (Article III of GATT)
Commitment to future negotiation
Stated compliance to existing WTO (TRIMs)
agreements on Investment
Information exchange and transparency
commitments
Currently in negotiation
No provisions
Word Count in main FTA text
FTA Provisions
on Investment:
Singapore and
Thailand FTAs
TRIMS
Provision
Areas
Protective Clauses and
Exceptions
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п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚·
п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚·
п‚·
п‚· п‚·
SINGAPORE
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
п‚· п‚·
п‚·
п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚·
п‚·
п‚· п‚·
п‚· п‚·
п‚· п‚·
п‚·
п‚· п‚·
п‚·
THAILAND
п‚· п‚· п‚·
п‚· п‚·
п‚· п‚· п‚·
п‚· п‚·
п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚· п‚·
ASEAN-Level
п‚· п‚·
п‚·
п‚·
Notes: Smaller dot denotes a more minor reference to this provision or clause. * MFN treatment applies amongst ASEAN member states only. ^
Obligation to adopt the ACFTA chapter on investment after its concluded negotiation. Sources: Original FTA texts.
п‚·
• Commercial regulation provisions of FTAs can shape
•
the economic and business environment in various
ways…
пѓ�shaping the very nature of international business
competition (and �free trade’): more defined by
regulatory parameters rather than the elimination
of conventional trade barriers, e.g. tariffs
пѓ�conferring distinct regulatory preferences, e.g. on
govt procurement �offer’ thresholds, RoO generally
пѓ�dominant FTA partner shapes the domestic
regulatory regime of others, e.g. US and IPR
пѓ�rules of origin and configuration of supply chains
and international production networks
пѓ�FTAs extending beyond compliance to WTO
accords, e.g. on TRIMS, TRIPS, GPA
Approach towards FTA commercial regulation will
primarily depend on development capacity factors…
Key Points to Conclude…
• FTA evolution reflects the fast evolving nature
of the global economy and economic relations
• FTA growth since end of Cold War, and most
rapid growth in the Asia-Pacific, but this
growth is slowing
• With WTO hampered on global trade liberalisation, FTAs trade and wider commercial
regimes will remain very important
• FTAs and the idea of �freer trade, more
regulations?’… the rising prominence of
commercial regulation provisions
• East Asian nations using FTAs for economic
co-operation purposes
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