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Income Poverty and Hunger in Asia - National Agricultural Statistics

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Income Poverty and Hunger in
Asia:
The Role of Information
S. Chatterjee, B. Prakash and
S. Tabor
Introduction
• Poverty and hunger
– Income poverty associated with calorie
intake; hunger associated with
nutrition in addition to calories
• Asia’s overall record in reducing poverty
is good
– Agricultural growth played major role
Introduction (Cont’d)
• The general picture hides crucial details
– Poverty reduction and nutritional intake not
uniform
– Averages conceal
– Food distribution
– Gender, Caste, Ethnicity and Hunger
– Hidden Hunger
– Policy implications
Poverty and Food Availability in AsiaPacific
• Major reduction in income poverty by $1
a day measure
• Average food availability and macronutrient consumption have increased
significantly in general
F ig u re 1 : Po v e rty Inc ide n ce Ba se d o n In te r na tio n al Po v e rty Line
($1 /d ay)
40
Percent of Total Population
19 90
20 00
30
20
10
0
E as t A s ia
S ou th eas t
S out h A s ia
Cent ral A s ia
P ac ific A s ia
As ia
All A s ia
A ll A s ia
(ex c ept PRC
and Ind ia)
S ou rc e: W orld B an k . 2 004 . G lob a l E c ono m ic P ros p ec t s 20 04. W a s hing to n DC.
Figure 2: Numbe r of Poor Base d on $1/Day
10 00
9 00
199 0
8 00
200 0
Millions
7 00
6 00
5 00
4 00
3 00
2 00
1 00
0
E as t A s ia
S out he as t As ia
So ut h As ia
A ll As ia
A ll As ia (ex c ep t
PRC and India)
S ourc e : W orld B an k . 2 004 . G lo b al Ec ono m ic P ros p ec t s 20 04. W a s hingt on DC.
Per Capita Food Availability Trend
Figure 1. Food Availability in Developing Asia
Per-capita production index net of exports and f eed use
(1999-2001 = 100)
120
100.3
104.1
100
1999-2001 =00
79.6
80
58.8
63.4
60
40
20
0
1970
1980
1990
Developing Asia
2000
2003
Calorie Consumption Trends
Figure 2a. Trends in Calorie Consumption in Selected Asian Nations, 1970-2000
calorie (no.)
3000
2500
2000
1500
1970
1980
Year
1990
2000
People's Republic of China
India
Indonesia
Source: FAOSTAT at http://w w w .fao.org
Bangladesh
Intra-regional Variations
• Poverty reduction not uniform (Number
of Poor Table)
• Food availability and nutrient intake
increases also not uniform
– Several countries fared badly in food
availability and nutrition
• South Asia
What Averages Conceal
• Urban-rural divide
– In income poverty estimates (Table 4)
– Likely also in calorie and nutrient
consumption
• Near poor
– Population between $1-$2 a day (Table 4)
• Geographical pockets of food insecurity
– Chronic or periodic deficits owing to climate
– Aggravated by absence of communications
– Data deficiencies
The Distribution of Food
• Aggregate food availability hides distribution
issues and food availability of poor
• Sudden scarcities can cause food prices to shoot
up, making food unaffordable by poor
• Need for reliable and timely information of food
prices and stocks
• Public distribution must target poor better
Gender, Caste , Ethnicity and Hunger
• Gender deprivations in Asia-Pacific
– 2/3rd of Asia-Pacific’s income poor are female
– Deprivations in education and health
• Within-household distribution of food
– Usually skewed against females
• Caste and ethnic discriminations
• Differences not reflected in national statistics
Hidden Hunger
• Hunger, the broad definition
– Calorie as well as other essential nutrients
for health, education and productivity
– 1.5 billion people in Asia-Pacific suffer from
nutrition deficiency (3/4th of nutritionally
deficient in world)
– Significant number of above poor (by
income) also suffer hidden hunger
Hidden Hunger (Cont’d)
• Critical nutrition deficiencies
– Iron deficiency anemia (IDA)
• 60% pregnant women, 50% women in reproductive
age, 40% pre-school children
• Bangladesh study – 2% loss of GDP
– Iodine deficiency
• Main cause of preventable mental retardation
• Annually over 13 million Asian births affected
– Vitamin A deficiency
• Impaired vision and weakened immunity
• Affects 25% of child population in Asia
Scatter Diagram: Poverty Incidence
and Iron Deficiency Anemia in
Children Under 5
L O G (P O V IN C )
4.5
4.0
3.5
3.0
3.2
3.4
3.6
3.8
LOG(IRONDEF)
4.0
4.2
4.4
Hidden Hunger (Cont’d)
• Slow progress in reducing hidden hunger
– Income poverty and nutrition deficiency
indicated e.g. by child anemia and
underweight children often not correlated
(Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand)
– Stagnation in underweight children situation
in South Asia and increase in Central Asia
and South Pacific
Policy Implications
• Role of accurate information in curbing
hunger
– Information on price and distribution of
food; not merely average per-capita
availabilities (e.g. case of India)
– Disaggregation of information to cover
rural-urban; unreported areas; gender and
other deprived groups
– Hidden hunger issues go beyond food
availabilities alone and need reporting
– Literacy, diets and public awareness
Policy Implications (Cont’d)
• Food distribution
– Better targeting of public food distribution
• Food fortification
– Regulations, incentives and education
• New tool-kits
– Interventions combining income increases with:
better food supply, potable water,maternal
education, access to maternal and child health care
• Role of ministries other than agriculture
– Public works, education, health
Thank You
schatterjee@adb.org
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