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quality and equity in education in southeast asia

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TRADE
IN EDUCATION SERVICES
IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
OPPORTUNIES AND CHALLENGES
WTO
WTO
GATS
TES
Trade in Education Services
EDUCATION
One of the least committed sectors
Less than one-third of the 147 WTO’s
members states have made commitments
Most WTO members have put more
limitations on trade in primary and
secondary education than higher and adult
education
MODES OF SUPPLY
• Cross-border-supply
• Consumption abroad / Movement
of consumers
• Commercial presence
• Presence of natural persons /
Movement of service providers
CATEGORIES OF EDUCATION
SERVICES
•
•
•
•
•
Primary Education
Secondary Education
Higher Education
Adult Education
Other Education
• TES is already a major business in some countries.
The largest share of international TES takes the
form of students traveling to study abroad.
• Since 1995, the importance of TES has grown
dramatically.
• There has been an explosive growth in
international TES, covering all modes of supply
including cross-border e-learning activities and the
establishment of campuses and teaching facilities
abroad.
SOUTHEAST ASIA REGION
-?population
540 million
POPULATION
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Brunei
Cambodia
Indonesia
Lao PDR
Malaysia
Myanmar
Philippines
Singapore
Thailand
Vietnam
343,653
12,491,501
228,437,870
5,635,967
22,229,040
41,994,678
82,841,518
4,300,419
61,797,751
79,939,014
WTO
Members
Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Myanmar,
Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand
Observers
Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam
General Agreement
on Trade in Services
(GATS)
Member
Thailand
(Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar,
Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Lao PDR, and
Vietnam)
Even though most of SEA countries have
not made any committments to GATS,
since the governments are free to
liberalize unilaterally without committed to
the GATS there has been a growing
international TES in SEA.
Singapore and Malaysia are major
importers of transnational education.
TES in SEA
• Consumption Abroad (Australia, Canada,
USA, Europe, New Zealand, Asia, etc)
• Presence of commercial ( establishment of local
branch, satellite campuses, representative offices,
twinning partnerships, franchising arrangements)
• Movement of natural persons (professors,
teachers, researchers, principals traveling to SEA
to provide service)
• Cross Border Supply (distance education, elearning, virtual universities, education software)
SINGAPORE
• Two types of transnational education : external
DE and foreign university branch campuses.
• Enrollment grows from 13,900 students (1997) to
25,400 (1999).
• In 1998 55 % enrolled in degrees courses
awarded by British institutions and 40 % by
Australian institutions( UKOU,Univ.of
London,RMIT,Monash Univ., Curtin Univ.)
• Cross-border DE programs and online courses
that do not have a local presence do not require
approval.
• Bilateral agreements were made with countries
providers.
MALAYSIA
• In mid 1990s 7,2 % university student age were
enrolled in local university. Majority of the rest went
abroad.
• Many colleges offering 1+2 , 2+1 or 3+0 twinning
programs with foreign universities.
• New private universities and branch campuses of
foreign university may only be established following an
invitation from MOE.
• Invited foreign universities must establish a Malaysian
company with majority Malaysian ownership to operate
the campus.
• National language, Malaysian studies, moral and
Islamic studies are compulsory subjects for those
universities.
MALAYSIA
Twinning Programs :
• KL Infrastructure Univ. College – New Zealand
Institute of Highway Technology and China University
of Geosciences (Beijing).
• Inti College offers 2+1 program in collaboration with
Univ. of Leeds, Univ. of Northumbria and Univ. of West
England; and 1+2 program with Univ. of Hull and Univ.
of Cardiff.
• Nilai International College with Univ. of Northumbria,
Univ. of Central Lancashire and La Trobe University.
• Taylor’s College with Univ.of Sheffield, UK.
MALAYSIA
• Bellerbys College-Queens Campus,UK, sent its Senior
Principal to do interview sessions.
• University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus welcomed
its first students in 2000.
• Trinity College provides foundation studies as pathway
to the Univ. of Melbourne.
• Univ. of Leichester, Malaysia, offoring Ed.D and MSc.
THAILAND
Twinning programs
• Kasetsart University – Victoria University
(Melbourne);
• King Mongkut’s Univ. of Technology – Univ. of
Regina (Canada) and Univ. Missouri (Columbia,
USA).
A free promotional seminars were held in Bangkok by
Hotel Institute Montreux, Switzerland and Royal
Melbourne Institute of Technology (26 and 28
August 2004).
Interview session were done in Bangkok by University
of New South Wales and University of San
Francisco.
INDONESIA
Twinning programmes
• University of Indonesia - Queensland University
of Technology, Monash University,The
University of Queensland and The University of
Melbourne, Australia.
• Trisakti School of Management - One Learning
Place, Singapore.
• Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB) University of Al-Azhar.
178
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOLS
•
•
•
•
•
•
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia
Lao PDR
Indonesia
Malaysia
Myanmar
Philippines
• Singapore
• Thailand
• Vietnam
-
5
5
1
45
24
4
18
21
47
8
OPPORTUNITIES
• Quality and Equity in education are top
priorities
• Great demand – globalization
• Big, diverse and growing market
• Potential partners
• The increasing use of ICTs for domestic
and cross border delivery of programs
CHALLENGES
• Education is treated purely as a commercial and tradable
commodity. Trade will overshadow and dominate
international academic relations of countries.
• Recognition of degrees and qualifications, and transfer of
credits.
• Restrictions on commercial presence or investment, use
of internet or educational materials.
• Quality assurance and accreditation – malpractice.
• Visa requirements, employment rules.
• Limited budget or lack of political will to allocate funds.
• Competition between public and private providers.
• Homogenization of culture – potential threats to cultural
values and national traditions.
TES will almost certainly continue to grow in
SEA as governments and societies put more
premium on human capital enhancement as a
source of development as a means of better
equiping individuals and societies to confront,
adjust to and take advantage of the demands
arising from closer economic integration.
THANK YOU
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