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Asia and Africa in the 20th Century

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Asia and Africa in the 20th Century
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Africa and Asia in 1900
Africa & Asia:
The Road to Independence
Road to Independence
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Pre-World War I
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Nationalism
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Indian National Congress &
Muslim League
Egyptian Nationalism
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Dinshawai Incident
“Save the King” movement in
Vietnam
Violence
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Boer Wars
Islamic Fundamentalism
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the Mahdi in Egypt
Guerilla Warfare in Vietnam
Top: The members of
the 1st Indian
National Congress
Bottom: Muhammad
Ahmad “the Mahdi”
Road to Independence: World War I
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Promises of Self-Determination
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India wanted self-government
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Arabs wanted independence
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Rowlatt Act (1920)
Mandate System (right)
Balfour Declaration
Locals fill colonial posts
Economic strain of the war
Treaty of Versailles
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Increased nationalism
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Gandhi and satyagraha
Ho Chi Minh
May Fourth Movement
Road to Independence: Interwar Years
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Egypt
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Continued nationalism
England withdrawal began 1922
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South Africa
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Left khedival regime in power
Self-government granted in 1910
Part of commonwealth in 1933
India
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The Great Depression
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Anti-government protests
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Gandhi’s Salt March (1931)
Government of India Act (1935)
Road to Independence: World War II
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Cost of Empire
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Need to rebuild home
country
Declining support for
colonialism
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Atlantic Charter (1941)
Soviets “loathe” colonialism
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The Atlantic Charter was drafted by U.S.
President Franklin Roosevelt (left) and British
Prime Minister Winston Churchill (right). In
it they voiced support for "the right of all
peoples to choose the form of government
under which they will live."
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Except for Latvia, Estonia,
Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Georgia,
Armenia, etc.
Japan conquers colonies in
East Asia
Post-World War II Independence
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Three routes to independence
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Negotiated Independence
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Parts of Asia and Africa gained their independence without much
bloodshed
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Incomplete Independence
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Places with sizeable settler populations or Cold War importance
struggled to gain their independence
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India & Pakistan
Japan & Korea
Ghana & the Congo
South Africa, Kenya, & Algeria
Vietnam
Civil War
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China resumed civil war between nationalists and communists
Negotiated Independence: India
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India & Pakistan gained their
independence August 1947
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Communal violence ensued as
millions of Muslims moved to
Pakistan and millions of Hindus and
Sikhs moved to India
Violence broke out over Kashmir
Jawaharlal Nehru (right) became
the first prime minister of India
Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the
first prime minister of Pakistan
Negotiated Independence: Japan
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United States occupied Japan from August 1945-1952
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Feared Soviets would influence Japan
Japanese cooperated with the U.S.
Political and social changes
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Military disbanded and military spending limited
Shintoism was abolished as state religion
New parliamentary system with constitution
Women received the right to vote
Large estates were divided and redistributed to farmers
Zaibatsu combines were temporarily dissolved
Negotiated Independence: Korea, et al.
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Korea was divided at 38th
parallel
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Korean War resulted in a Soviet
backed North Korea and U.S.
backed South Korea
Hong Kong remained a British
colony until 1997
Singapore gained independence
from Britain in 1959
Chiang Kai-shek established the
Republic of China on Taiwan
Negotiated Independence: Africa
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African “nationalism”
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World War II
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West built factories in Africa
Africans migrated to cities looking
for work
Kwame Nkrumah gained
independence for Ghana in 1957
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Negritude movement
Pan-Africanism
First successful mass movement
1960 is known as the “Year of
Africa”
Incomplete Independence: South Africa
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Gained home rule in 1910
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Whites institute apartheid in 1948
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Had over 4 million white residents
Denied civil rights to black population
Reserved best jobs for whites
Reserved 87% of land for whites
Black Africans & Indians couldn’t vote
ANC led mass protests against
apartheid
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Sharpeville Massacre (1960)
ANC leader Nelson Mandela arrested
and sentenced to life in prison in 1964
Incomplete Independence: South Africa
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Black protests of apartheid
increased in the 1980s
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End of Apartheid
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Bishop Desmond Tutu encouraged
international embargo of South Africa
Gained worldwide attention due to TV
Nelson Mandela freed in 1990
Apartheid laws repealed in 1990-1991
First free election occurred in 1994
New constitution passed in 1996
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Includes U.S. style Bill of Rights
Incomplete Independence: Kenya
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White coffee planters felt
ethnic Kenyans were not
ready for self-government
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Called rebels the Mau Mau
Violence erupted in the 1950s
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British captured native fighters
and resettled them in camps
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Jomo Kenyatta & other leaders
were imprisoned for eight years
Kenyatta negotiated Kenyan
independence in 1961
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Elected president in 1964
Incomplete Independence: Algeria
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Algeria was viewed as an extension of France
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National Liberation Front (FLN) made up of Berbers and
Arabs demanded independence
Settlers and rich Arabs and Berbers continue fight against
the FLN
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One million settlers created a maintain at all costs attitude
France dependent upon Algerian oil & gas fields and vineyards
Form the Secret Army Organization (OAS)
After 8 years of violence and thousand of casualties,
France eventually negotiated independence in 1962
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Millions of French settlers and wealthy Arabs and Berbers
emigrated to France
Incomplete Independence: Vietnam
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World War II
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Viet Minh (communists) successfully
resisted Japanese occupation
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Provided assistance during famine
Instituted communist reforms
Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam
independent from France in 1945
French refused to recognize
independence and tried to
reoccupy the region
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Defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu
in 1954
Leaders of the Viet Minh:Vo
Nguyen Giap (left) and Ho Chi
Minh (right)
Vietnam War (1954-1973)
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France leaves after being defeated at Dien Bien Phu
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Ho Chi Minh agrees to divide Vietnam into two parts
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Elections were promised within two years to decide who
should rule a united Vietnam
U.S. sends in “advisors” to help South Vietnam in 1954
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Communists dominated northern Vietnam
U.S. viewed conflict as part of the Cold War
U.S. supported anti-communist dictator Ngo Dinh Diem
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Diem attempted to suppress communists in South Vietnam
Viet Minh (Viet Cong) sent military supplies to aid southern
communists (National Liberation Front)
Vietnam War (1954-1973)
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Richard Nixon continued to
escalate U.S. presence in Vietnam
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Resort to carpet bombing &
chemical warfare
Some historian argue the bombing
of Cambodia triggered the Khmer
Rouge
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Pol Pot killed approximately 20% of
the Cambodian population
U.S. ended involvement in 1973
Communists unite Vietnam in
1975
Some Buddhist monks expressed
opposition to the war by practicing selfimmolation. This monk, Thich Quang
Duc is a national hero in Vietnam
The Khmer Rouge
Africa & Asia After Independence
Asia & Africa After Independence
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Challenges facing independent states
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Political Instability
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Most countries end up one-party states or military dictatorships
The Cold War
Colonial Legacy
The Population “Bomb”
Parasitic Cities & Endangered ecosystems
Women’s Subordination
Neocolonialism
Dictatorships in the 20th Century
One Party States
Democracy in 20th Century
Military Dictatorships
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Why military dictatorships?
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Military is more resistant to
religious and ethnic rivalries
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Military used to suppress ethnic
and religious tensions
A monopoly of force
A degree of technical training
Most are staunchly
anticommunist
Military dictatorships often
bring political stability but
economic development is rare
Clockwise from top
left: Idi Amin of
Uganda, Mobutu
Sese Seko of the
Congo, Muammar
al-Gaddafi of Libya
Military Dictatorship: Egypt
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Gamal Abdel Nasser
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Seized power in 1952
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Instituted a series of reforms
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Land reform, education, subsidized food
costs, emphasized industrial growth
Reforms foiled by corruption, lack of
foreign investment, & population growth
Supported Pan-Arabism
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Embarrassed by defeat in Arab-Israeli
War of 1948
Opposed Israel
Built the Aswan Dam
One-Party State: Ghana
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Kwame Nkrumah
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Originally committed to social &
economic reform
Reforms hindered by lack of
education, industrialization, and
decline of cocoa prices
Leftist (socialist) leanings won
support from Soviets & alienated
Western investors
Ruled as a authoritarian dictator
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Crushed political opposition,
staged “events”, manipulated
history, etc.
Democracy: Botswana
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Democratic since gaining
independence in 1966
Stable economy based upon
diamonds, tourism, &
manufacturing
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Per capita GDP: $12,500
World average: $7,400
Predominantly Christian
AIDS/HIV rate was 24% in
2006
Democracy: India
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Advantages
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Disadvantages
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Military defends secular democracy
Came to independence with a larger industrial and scientific
center, better communication systems, and a larger, more
skilled middle class
Population growth, poverty, unemployment, religious & ethnic
diversity, and natural disasters
Military conflicts with Pakistan over Kashmir
Early Government
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Reforms to help lower castes and women
Spearheaded the nonalignment movement
Democracy: India
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Indira Gandhi
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Tried to limit freedom of press
Proposed involuntary sterilization to slow
population growth
Indian Economy
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Mix of private and state initiatives
Green Revolution
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Introduced improved seed strains, fertilizers,
and irrigation
Credited for averting a global famine
Growing middle class
World’s largest film industry
The Cold War
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U.S. and Soviet Union attempted to influence new states
Bandung Conference 1955
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Conference participants claimed to be “non-aligned”
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Many independence movements received help from the
Soviet Union or Cuba
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United States often interfered in these nations
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Nasser and Nkrumah attended the conference
The Congo and the Cold War
Nkrumah overthrown by C.I.A. in 1966
Proxy wars fueled ethnic tension & genocide
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Hutus in Rwanda massacred 750,000 ethnic Tutsis in 1995
Colonial Legacy
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All new nations were “artificial nations”
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European colonial boundaries rarely took into account the
ethnicities, interests, and histories of the people
European control often intensified existing divisions
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Minority Tutsi were favored over the majority Hutu in Rwanda
Europe often “cut-and-run” at the end of colonial rule
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Often led to ethnic strife in new nations
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India, Nigeria, the Congo, Palestine, etc.
Pakistan quickly divided into two nations – Pakistan & Bangladesh
New rulers create a national identity
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Separatist movements emerged and led to civil war in Morocco, India,
the Sudan, & Nigeria
Population Bomb
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Why?
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Introduction of new food crops (Columbian Exchange), colonialism
ended local warfare, railroads cut down on famine, improved hygiene &
medicine, resistance to birth control, declining infant mortality rates
Population Density
Population Cartogram
AIDS in the Twentieth Century
Parasitic Cities
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Massive post-independence urbanization occurred in
most countries
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No expanding industrial centers meant few jobs & low wages
Urban poor could become politically volatile
Little or no urban planning
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Slum areas with no electricity, running water, or basic sewage
Cities are not productive thus “parasitic”
Puts pressure on rural areas
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Draw food and resources from depleted countryside
Contributes to soil depletion, deforestation, desertification, etc.
Percentage of Arable Land
Global Soil Degradation
Women’s Subordination
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New nations often supported women’s suffrage, equal legal
rights, education, & occupational opportunities (in theory)
In reality, most societies remained patriarchal
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Men dominated most political positions
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Arranged marriages, early marriage ages, and large families
Dietary customs increase chances of malnutrition
Female infanticide is common in many places
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Prominent female leaders were often related to powerful men
Indira Gandhi, Benazir Bhutto, Corazon Aquino
China, India, East Africa
Religious revivalism erodes women’s rights
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Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, India, the Sudan
Neocolonialism
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Most nations continued to rely upon trading cash crops
or raw materials to industrialized nations in return for
manufactured goods
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Price of commodities (cash crops and minerals) often fluctuate
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Some organizations have been formed to limit fluctuation
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One or two bad years could destroy an emerging nation’s economy
OPEC – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Government corruption and lack of reforms also
contribute to neocolonialism
Nations turn to international organizations or industrial
nations for help
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International Monetary Fund (IMF) or the World Bank
Middle East after World War II
Arab Independence
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Saudi Arabia became independent
after World War I
Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and
Jordan gained independence after
World War II with little difficulty
Complete autonomy was difficult
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Egypt due to Suez Canal
Cold War tensions
Other states due to oil
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OPEC
Creation of Israel
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Israel was created by a
UN mandate in 1947
Israel seized control of
Jerusalem & all of
Palestine except the
West Bank & Gaza Strip
in 1949
Israel easily wins the
Arab-Israeli War of 1967
and the Yom Kippur War
in 1973
Arab Nationalism
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Problems facing Arab nationalism
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Anwar Sadat facilitated peace process between Arab
world & Israel (1978-1980)
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Cold War splits nations as some allied with the U.S. and others
the USSR
Differing government types (monarchy, military dictatorships,
Islamic revolutionary)
Sunni-Shi’a split
His reward? He was assassinated in 1981
Sadat’s assassination made Saddam Hussein leader of the
Arab world
Palestinian Liberation Organization
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Created in 1964 by Yasser
Arafat to promote
Palestinian rights
Often resorted to
“terrorism” against Israel
Negotiated limited
Palestinian self-rule in 1993
and 1995
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PLO was replaced by Hamas
as the leading anti-Israeli
organization in Palestine
Yasser Arafat, founder of the PLO,
and Yitzak Rabin, Israel’s prime
minister, shake hands after signing
the Olso Accords in 1994
Iranian Revolution
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Preliminary Phase
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Iran was never colonized
Shah Reza Pahlavi ruled as a dictator
Used oil profits to modernize Iran
Reforms angered the middle class,
religious leaders, merchants, rural poor,
urban laborers, and the army
The Event
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In the late 1970s a decline in oil prices
caused massive unemployment and
rural unrest
Iranian Revolution
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Initial Phase
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Sit-ins, riots, urban protests
Government exiled religious leaders
Military was unwilling to defend the
Shah
Radical Phase
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Ayatollah Khomeini returned from exile
in France & overthrew the Shah in 1979
Ayatollah proclaimed himself
“jurisprudent”
Ayatollah quickly repressed
constitutional & leftist revolutionaries
Images of the Revolution
Images of the Revolution
Recovery Phase
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Shiite Fundamentalism
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Purge Iran of the “satanic” influences of the U.S. & Europe
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Institute Sharia law
Iran Hostage Crisis
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Banned alcohol, coeducational classrooms, mixed swimming, &
western entertainment
Iranians stormed the U.S. embassy taking 70 Americans captive
Government Reforms
Nationalized banks, insurance companies, & large farms
Attempts at land reform and economic development
were minimal due to the Iran – Iraq War (1980-1988)
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