South Asia Geography Unit 8 (Chapters 24, 25 and 26) The subcontinent вЂў Subcontinent вЂ“ a large landmass, slightly smaller than a continent. вЂў Two tectonic plates, the Indian and Eurasian were forced together creating mountains by collision Landforms вЂў Mountains вЂ“ Himalayas вЂў Highest point in the world вЂў Mt. Everest вЂ“ Hindu Kush and Karakoram mountains are part of the Himalayan chain вЂў Deccan Plateau вЂ“ Large arid region between Western and Eastern Ghats (small mountain ranges) вЂў Rivers вЂ“ Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra вЂў All have their sources in the Himalayas Both pictures show different views of the Ganges River, considered the greatest river of the Indian subcontinent вЂў Rivers support alluvial plains вЂ“ Like the Nile, Indian rivers bring minerals and moisture to lands вЂў Makes rich farmland вЂ“ Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of the most fertile farming regions in the world Many crops are grown in India. It is extremely necessary to grow significant quantities of food for their ever-expanding population. Offshore islands вЂў The Indian Subcontinent also contains two large island groups вЂ“ Sri Lanka вЂў The вЂњteardropвЂќ of the subcontinent вЂў The Maldives вЂ“ Another chain of islands, smaller than Sri Lanka вЂ“ They are an archipelago вЂў Island group Indian-subcontinent natural resources вЂў The subcontinent relies heavily on itвЂ™s land and water as resources вЂў Also: вЂ“ Forest for timber, plants and animals вЂ“ Minerals, coal, oil and natural gas, iron ore Iron ore from Pakistan Coal strip mining South Asia Climate вЂў Monsoons (Seasonal) вЂ“ Summer monsoon brings tons of rain вЂў Very necessary to help support agriculture in South Asia вЂ“ Winter Monsoon is a wind shift that brings dry air. вЂў Himalayas вЂ“ Man has tried to best Mt. Everest and other Himalayan slopes since the beginning of recorded history Cyclones Hugely destructive storms of circling wind and water that can submerge miles of coastline. South Asia Human Geography вЂў History вЂ“ Originally South Asia was many small empires вЂў Mauryan, Gupta (both Buddhist) and Mughal (Muslim) Empires held power at different times. вЂў Colonialism вЂ“ In 1500вЂ™s European traders came to South Asia. вЂ“ Later the British (and a few others) colonized much of South Asia and controlled it for years. вЂў Natives did not like colonial rule and protested. вЂ“ Mohandas Gandhi began opposition movement вЂў Based on non-violent resistance вЂў Eventually Great Britain gave in вЂ“ Granted Independence to India вЂў August 14, 1947 вЂ“ India is now the WorldвЂ™s largest democracy! Religious Conflict вЂў Religions вЂ“ Many different religions, вЂ“ Much of the violence due to religious differences вЂў India/Pakistan conflict вЂ“ India is mostly Hindu, Pakistan mostly Muslim. They fight over territory. вЂў Kashmir вЂ“ disputed land вЂ“ They divided the land between HinduвЂ™s and Muslims, naming the Muslim sections Pakistan. This was called partition. What do HinduвЂ™s believe? вЂў Complex religion вЂў Polytheistic вЂў Believe in reincarnation вЂ“ Idea that your soul returns to Earth many times вЂ“ Karma вЂ“ moral consequences of a persons actions in one life determine that personвЂ™s next life Buddhism вЂў Buddhism was born in South Asia вЂ“ Now much more popular in Central Asia (China) вЂ“ Buddhists believe in focusing on leading a good life, not material possessions. вЂ“ Through meditation and good deeds they try to achieve nirvana (perfection of spirit) вЂ“ This religion created by Siddartha (Buddha) South Asia Economics вЂў Most economic activities center on agriculture вЂ“ Subsistence farming вЂў Growing what your family needs to eat and survive, with little left over to sell вЂ“ Many south Asian families are subsistence farmers вЂ“ New Ideas вЂў Land reform вЂ“ Redistribute the land so that more people have access to good amounts, instead of just the wealthy five percent. вЂў Green revolution вЂ“ Introduced new farming techniques and crops to improve yield (how much product you get) вЂ“ It has been working Issues India Faces вЂў Population explosion вЂ“ India is a stage 2 country вЂў Their population growth rate is fastest in the world вЂ“ Will be most populous country by about 2015. вЂў Problems come when you have that many citizens. вЂў Poverty вЂ“ Many of South AsiaвЂ™s people live in poverty. вЂў Caste System вЂ“ System of social classes that is a cornerstone of Hinduism вЂ“ You are restricted to your own social class your entire life. вЂў With good Karma, you will move up in social classes in your other lifetimes. вЂ“ Government is concerned with how this does not allow for personal betterment вЂў The untouchable, or bottom caste, was done away with by the govt. but it is still part of life.