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World Explorer Asia and the Pacific

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World Explorer
Chapter 1
East Asia:
Physical Geography
Copyright В© 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
World Explorer
Chapter 1: East Asia: Physical Geography
Section 1: Land and Water
Section 2: Climate and Vegetation
Section 3: Natural Resources
Copyright В© 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
This is East Asia…
Chapter 1 , Section 1
Land and Water
• What are the main physical
features of East Asia?
• How does the physical geography
affect where people live in East
Asia?
Chapter 1 , Section 1
Land and Water
Key Terms
• plateau- a raised area of mostly level land
• desert- a dry region that has extreme
temperatures and little vegetation
• fertile- containing substances that plants need in
order to grow well
• loess- a brownish-yellow fertile soil found on the
North China Plain
• archipelago- a group of islands
• peninsula- a body of land nearly surrounded by
water
• population density- the average number of people
living in a square mile (or square km)
Chapter 1 , Section 1
Land and Water
Key Places
• Mount Everest
• Himalaya Mountains
• Yangzi
• Huang He
Chapter 1 , Section 1
East Asia’s Landforms
• China takes up most of the land in East Asia and
is the world’s third-largest country.
• Mountains, highlands, and plateaus make up
much of China’s landscape.
• The other countries in the region—Mongolia,
North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan—
are also mountainous, but lack wide plains and
plateaus.
• Powerful natural forces such as earthquakes and
volcanoes created East Asia’s rugged landscape
millions of years ago.
Chapter 1 , Section 1
China, Japan, and the Koreas
China
Japan
The Koreas
• A land of extremes
• Oldest civilization
on Earth
• More people than
any other nation
• Mountains and
deserts make up
two-thirds of China
• Home to some of
the highest
mountains
• An archipelago in
the western Pacific
Ocean
• Four major islands
and more than
3,000 smaller ones
• Every major city is
located on the
coast
• Nearly 80 percent
of the country is
mountainous
• “Land of Golden
Embroidery”
• A peninsula,
stretching into the
Yellow Sea and
Sea of Japan
• More than 70
percent of the land
consists of steep
and rocky slopes
• Since 1945, has
been divided into
two separate
countries.
Chapter 1 , Section 1
Geography and Population
• Nearly 1.5 billion people live in East Asia.
• Most of them crowd into the lowland and
coastal areas, where it is easier to live
and grow food.
• Almost half the population of Japan is
crowded on less than 3 percent of its
land.
• The region is largely rural, but also has
some of the world’s major cities.
Chapter 1 , Section 1
East Asia: Population Density
Chapter 1 , Section 2
Climate and Vegetation
• What are the major climates and
vegetation regions of East Asia?
• How do climate and vegetation
affect people’s lives in East Asia?
Chapter 1 , Section 2
Climate and Vegetation
Key Terms
• Monsoon- the winds that blow across East Asia at
certain times of the year; in summer, they are
very wet; in winter, they are generally dry unless
they have crossed warm ocean currents
• Typhoon- a violent storm that develops over the
Pacific Ocean
• Deciduous- leaf-shedding; referring to trees that
lose their leaves each year, such as maples and
birches
Key Place
• North China Plain
Chapter 1 , Section 2
East Asia’s Climates
Much of East Asia, like the United States, has a
variety of climates. Some examples are:
• Eastern China has a humid subtropical
climate—hot summers and cool winters, with
plenty of rain.
• South Korea and Japan have more moderate
temperatures because they are surrounded
by water.
• The northern interior of China is very dry.
• Southwestern China has a cool, dry,
highland climate.
Chapter 1 , Section 2
Storms in Asia
Monsoons
• These winds travel across the Pacific Ocean and blow
in different directions throughout the year, strongly
affecting the climate.
• In the summer, the winds blow west, bringing rainfall
and hot, humid weather.
• In the winter, the winds blow east. Winds coming from
the northern interior are icy and dry and can produce
dust storms. After crossing warm ocean water, they
pick up moisture and drop it as rain or snow.
Typhoons
• These violent storms are like the hurricanes that
sometimes strike the southeast United States.
• Typhoon winds blow at 75 mph or more and with heavy
rains can cause major damage.
Chapter 1 , Section 2
The Influences of Climate: Vegetation
Much of the plant life in East Asia is strong
enough to stand seasonal differences in
temperature and rainfall:
• Bamboo: Grows very fast during the wet
season, but can also survive dry spells by
storing food in its huge root system.
• Shrubs and Small Flowering Plants: Spring
up rapidly after summer rains, then
disappear when dry weather returns.
• Deciduous Trees: Maples, birches, and other
trees turn the hillsides of Korea and Japan
gold, orange, and red during the fall.
Chapter 1 , Section 2
East Asia: Natural Vegetation
Chapter 1 , Section 2
The Influences of Climate: The Life of the People
The Huang He River (Yellow River): A Blessing and a
Curse
• The Good: The river picks up loess that is blown by the
desert and deposits it to the east of the North China
Plain, making the plain one of the best farming areas of
China.
• The Bad: The river is also known as “China’s Sorrow”
because it can sometimes flood, causing great damage.
Food and Diet
• Because rice needs warm weather, it is the main crop—
and food—of people in southern China.
• In the cooler north, wheat and other grains grow better
than rice. People in the north eat more flour products,
such as noodles.
Chapter 1 , Section 3
Natural Resources
• What are East Asia’s major natural
resources?
• How can East Asia produce enough
food to feed its large population?
Chapter 1 , Section 3
Natural Resources
Key Terms
• aquaculture- the cultivation of fish and water plants
• developing country- a country that has low industrial
production and little modern technology
• developed country- a country that has many industries
and a well-developed economy
• export- something sold by one country from another in
trade
• hydroelectricity- electric power that is produced by
running water, usually with dams
• import- something bought by one country from another
in trade
• terrace- a platform cut into the side of a mountain, used
for growing crops in steep places
• double-cropping- growing two crops on the same land
in a single year
Chapter 1 , Section 3
East Asia’s Resources: Minerals
North Korea
South Korea
Japan
China
• Coal and iron
are plentiful
• A developing
country with low
industrial
production
• Does not get
along, and
therefore does
not share, with
South Korea
• Lacking natural
resources
• A developed
country with
many industries
• Must import
minerals it
needs from
other countries
• Lacking natural
resources
• A modern
industrial
society
• Must import vast
quantities of
minerals, such
as coal, natural
gas, and oil
• Large supply of
natural
resources
• They mine
copper, tin, and
iron
• Huge oil
reserves and
lots of coal
• Still must import
some raw
materials
Chapter 1 , Section 3
Other Resources in East Asia
Forests
• Although parts of East Asia have large forests,
because most nations in the region have not
taken care of them, they must import their wood.
Water Is Important for Three Major Reasons:
• Using the power of East Asia’s swiftly flowing
rivers to generate electricity helps industrial
development.
• The Pacific Ocean, as well as China’s lakes and
rivers are important sources of food.
• Practices such as aquaculture have helped to
increase the food supply and help fishing become
a big business in the region.
Chapter 1 , Section 3
East Asia: Natural Resources
Chapter 1 , Section 3
Fertile Lands: A Valuable Resource
East Asia has a large population and because of its
mountainous terrain, only a small percentage of land is
available for cultivating. As a result, farmers have worked
on the following ways to make the most efficient use of
land:
• Cutting terraces into steep hillsides to gain more soil
for crops
• Planting one type of crop between the rows of another
• Using the sides of roads and railway lines for planting
• Double-cropping where climate and soil allow it
• Making local conditions work for them
• Continuing to find new crops with larger yields, better
fertilizers, and better ways of managing farms
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