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Open universities and on-line learning in Asia ---- Issues

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Open universities and on-line
learning in Asia
---- Issues and approaches
LI Yawan
Secretary General
Asian Association for Open Universities
Open universities in Asia
There are more than
70 dedicated single
mode open universities
in Asia, among which
38 are AAOU full
members.
Mission of Asian Open
Universities
Examining the open universities in Asia, we
have notified that all of the open universities
in Asia have the same objectives and
missions when they started their programs
within their countries:
To offer more access through multi-media
methodology to those who can not enter into
regular higher education institutions for
diploma or degree courses.
Achievements for Asian open
universities
п‚Ў Increased number of enrolment for
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
higher education institutions;
Created opportunities for adult learners;
Enabled learning to be more flexible and
convenient;
Promoted regional economic
development and social stability;
Improved overall quality of human
beings to meet challenges;
Open universities witnessed very
successful practice in Asia.
Case study in China
 The CRTVUs’ system: a national dedicated
distance education network in China with 1
CCRTVU and 44 PRTVUs.
п‚Ў CRTVUs has ranked itself in the forefront of
the mage-universities with its largest
number of enrolment.
п‚Ў Target students: primary & secondary
teachers, rural people, military officers and
soldiers, disabled and minority groups
Case study in India
п‚Ў A network of 10 open universities with
one national open university and some
state-owned open universities
Indira Gandhi National Open University
It is now the National Resource Center for
Open and Distance Learning and an Apex
body to coordinate and monitor distance
education system throughout the country.
Case study in Singapore
п‚Ў Open and Distance Learning Programs (ODLP) in
Singapore are generally targeted at working adults
who wished to upgrade themselves.
п‚Ў ODLP are offered by various foreign universities
through local private professional institutions,
business organizations and education-related
agencies.
п‚Ў The Ministry of Education provides seed funding for
the Open University Degree Program administered by
the Singapore Institute of Management.
п‚Ў Other than these traditional approaches to ODL, the
polytechnics have embarked on the use of the Internet
to deliver certain courses, both to students and
working adults.
http://gdenet.idln.or.id/country/ar_singapore/CR_Singapo
re.htm
Case study in Thailand
Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University
(1978)
п‚Ў Since its establishment in 1978, STOU
has made a significant contribution to
the expansion of educational
opportunities in Thailand. Over two
million people have studied with the
university, and the number of bachelor’s
degree graduates has recently passed
the 300,000 mark. (Prof. Pratya Vesarach)
Case study in Indonesia
Universitas Terbuka established in 1984.
UT is open to those interested in pursuing
further education at tertiary level with 4
faculties.
With the support of UNDP/UNESCO, a
network was established in 1993, which is
called Indonesian Distance Education
(IDLN).
Case study in Korea
Korea National Open University (1972)
It has playing the leading role in Korean
educational innovation through a variety of
learning media and distinctive educational
methods.
KNOU has produced over 300,000
accomplishing graduates, and currently
approximately 200,000 students are enrolled.
Case study in Sri Lanka
п‚Ў The Open University of Sri Lanka became
fully operative in 1980. It has the same legal
and academic status as any other national
university in Sri Lanka. It is the only
recognized university in Sri Lanka where
students are able to pursue further
education by distance education techniques
in keeping with the philosophy of Open and
Distance Learning.
Case study in Iran
Payame Noor University was founded in
1987.
The nature and scale of its operation make
PNU the most flexible and cost-effective
higher education institution in Iran. It is
also the largest state university in terms
of student number and coverage.
In 2006, the University enrolled about
431,840 students in 59-degree programs
at 257 study centers and units.
Case study in Vietnam
п‚Ў Hanoi Open University was established in
1993.
п‚Ў Hanoi Open University comprises 8 training
faculties with highly-qualified and
experienced professors, doctors, masters
and scientific staff.
п‚Ў The annual number of students
approximates to 40.000, around 21% out of
which are full-time, 11% part-time, and
68% distance learners.
New opportunities for ODL in Asia
Development of distance education through elearning
Governments’ increasing concern for mass
education and life-long learning
Impact of knowledge-economy on education
reform and innovation
Universities’ actions in capacity building in the
transition of educational paradigm to meet
social demands
Innovative practice in China
п‚Ў 67 e-colleges formed in conventional
universities
 Strategy focuses on “Reviving the country--through science and education” and
enlarging the scale of enrolment for higher
education institutions.
п‚Ў National resource center and public learning
support system is under construction
Enrolment Rate for HE, SHS, and
JHS in China from 1990 to 2005
100.00%
90.00%
80.00%
70.00%
60.00%
50.00%
40.00%
30.00%
20.00%
10.00%
0.00%
HE
SHS
JHS
1990
1995
2000
2005
Graduates Ratio of CRTVUs in the
Total Number of National HEIs
12.01%
CRTVUs
Other HEIs
Adult HEIs
Conventional
HEIs
Transmitting system of satellite and
computer-based network
Sat. Receiver
IP/VBI
CCTV--IP/VBI
Digital
Transmission
server
Distance Teaching
Platform
Fiber
Teaching platform at
PRTVU
Fiber
/
CERNET/CHINANET
Sat. Receiver
IP/VBI
Teaching platform
at branch school
ISDNгЂЃADSL
Cable T
VBI
Students
PSTNгЂЃISDNгЂЃADSL
Observation in India
The Indian educational system again observed
a paradigm shift in the late 90s when the
Govt of India allowed access to Internet and
private ISPs joined the bandwagon. (Ramesh
Sharma)
96 institutions is offering distance
education ----Dr. Siran Mukerji and Purnedu
Tripathi
India has grasped the opportunity of the 3
industry revolution and rank itself in the
second strongest country of information
technology the world over.
New development in Thailand
п‚Ў Thailand Cyber University (1999)
Develop UnitNet IT infrastructiure, to connect every
institution
Supporting the production of courseware
Developing the Learning management system
Developing the e-library, e-community and learning
resource sharing center.
STOU is also currently developing an integrated elearning system, presenting further possibilities for
interactive activities as well as offering on-demand
access to the university’s educational radio and
television programs.
E-learning in Malaysia
п‚Ў Open University Malaysia (2000)
п‚Ў University Tun Abdul Razak (1997)
п‚Ў The cyber corridor in Malaysia is an
encouraging development.
п‚Ў Asia-Pacific knowledge base was built up in
Malaysia.
E-learning in Singapore
п‚Ў Singapore has a very well-established
computer and communications network
covering all institutions and households.
п‚Ў The polytechnics in Singapore have embarked
on the use of the Internet to deliver some of
their courses. These courses are aimed at
supplementing conventional lectures for fulltime students and providing continuing
education and life-long learning for working
adults.
E-learning in Korea
Since 1997, KNOU has been performing elearning projects as a member of KVC
consortium.
Seoul Digital University (2000)
There are 17 Cyber colleges and universities at
the moment.
Korea has taken a strong approach to elearning and have surpassed Canada’s lead
on high speed broadband implementation.
Approximately 76.9% of Koreans have owned
PC, among which 82.3% can use internet and
57% are with broadband equipment. (Data
from 2002)
E-learning in Sri Lanka
Distance Learning is underway with the
assistance from the International
Development Association (IDA) of the World
Bank. US$ three million has been invested
in the special training project in ICT. The
Government of Sri Lanka contributed US$
one million.
In the OUSL, the students may register to
virtual classroom, and e-forum to receive elearning.
E-learning in Japan
GLAD (Gateway to Learning for Ability
Development)
NICER (National Information Center for
Educational Resources):
NIME is planning to prioritize its R&D into eLearning . They aim to support e-Learning courses
at universities and other institutions by centralizing
all Japanese higher education e-Learning services,
thereby enhancing convenience to students.
What else?
п‚Ў Distance education is still a new
phenomenon in the newly transitioned
economies like Mongolia, Cambodia, Lao
PDR and Vietnam. (Dr. Naveed A. Malik, et al)
п‚Ў Due to reverse economic and social
conditions of developed countries, countries
like Bangladesh could not yet establish a
reliable e-learning system or institution. (Md
Shahid Uddin Asbar)
Issues in Asian Open Universities
Imbalanced infrastructure and educational
resources;
Lack of well-designed overall planning and
uneven development for e-learning;
Lack in high qualified staff members for elearning support and guidance;
Less attention for effective application of new
technologies and resources;
Lack in joint research on some common issues
Measures to be taken
Enhance cross-culture exchanges and collaboration
through seminars, workshops, annual conferences and
staff exchange schemes;
Establish knowledge base to share good resources and
practice;
Increase awareness of student-focus approach within
academic circles;
Encourage innovation and reform in educational
management and teaching methodology;
Forge benchmarking and criteria for qualify ODL;
Encourage bi-lateral and multi-lateral cooperation in elearning resources and application
Meeting challenges
п‚Ў Establishing well-functioned mechanism to
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
п‚Ў
fulfill education goal;
Reinforcing traditional ways of organizing
education by innovative methods and practice;
Connecting with different learning community
through e-learning
Making on-line learning curriculum to cater for
economic and market needs;
Developing long-term strategies for life-long
learning
Perspective of Asian Open
Universities
п‚Ў All of the OU in Asia will play a more
important role in their respective countries
when life-long learning from slogan to reality;
п‚Ў Closer relationship will form within certain
areas when knowledge-based resource
centers are built up;
п‚Ў Asian Open Universities are catching up
with the mainstream of international ODL in
due time.
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