Open universities and on-line learning in Asia ---- Issues and approaches LI Yawan Secretary General Asian Association for Open Universities Open universities in Asia There are more than 70 dedicated single mode open universities in Asia, among which 38 are AAOU full members. Mission of Asian Open Universities Examining the open universities in Asia, we have notified that all of the open universities in Asia have the same objectives and missions when they started their programs within their countries: To offer more access through multi-media methodology to those who can not enter into regular higher education institutions for diploma or degree courses. Achievements for Asian open universities п‚Ў Increased number of enrolment for п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў higher education institutions; Created opportunities for adult learners; Enabled learning to be more flexible and convenient; Promoted regional economic development and social stability; Improved overall quality of human beings to meet challenges; Open universities witnessed very successful practice in Asia. Case study in China п‚Ў The CRTVUsвЂ™ system: a national dedicated distance education network in China with 1 CCRTVU and 44 PRTVUs. п‚Ў CRTVUs has ranked itself in the forefront of the mage-universities with its largest number of enrolment. п‚Ў Target students: primary & secondary teachers, rural people, military officers and soldiers, disabled and minority groups Case study in India п‚Ў A network of 10 open universities with one national open university and some state-owned open universities Indira Gandhi National Open University It is now the National Resource Center for Open and Distance Learning and an Apex body to coordinate and monitor distance education system throughout the country. Case study in Singapore п‚Ў Open and Distance Learning Programs (ODLP) in Singapore are generally targeted at working adults who wished to upgrade themselves. п‚Ў ODLP are offered by various foreign universities through local private professional institutions, business organizations and education-related agencies. п‚Ў The Ministry of Education provides seed funding for the Open University Degree Program administered by the Singapore Institute of Management. п‚Ў Other than these traditional approaches to ODL, the polytechnics have embarked on the use of the Internet to deliver certain courses, both to students and working adults. http://gdenet.idln.or.id/country/ar_singapore/CR_Singapo re.htm Case study in Thailand Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University (1978) п‚Ў Since its establishment in 1978, STOU has made a significant contribution to the expansion of educational opportunities in Thailand. Over two million people have studied with the university, and the number of bachelorвЂ™s degree graduates has recently passed the 300,000 mark. (Prof. Pratya Vesarach) Case study in Indonesia Universitas Terbuka established in 1984. UT is open to those interested in pursuing further education at tertiary level with 4 faculties. With the support of UNDP/UNESCO, a network was established in 1993, which is called Indonesian Distance Education (IDLN). Case study in Korea Korea National Open University (1972) It has playing the leading role in Korean educational innovation through a variety of learning media and distinctive educational methods. KNOU has produced over 300,000 accomplishing graduates, and currently approximately 200,000 students are enrolled. Case study in Sri Lanka п‚Ў The Open University of Sri Lanka became fully operative in 1980. It has the same legal and academic status as any other national university in Sri Lanka. It is the only recognized university in Sri Lanka where students are able to pursue further education by distance education techniques in keeping with the philosophy of Open and Distance Learning. Case study in Iran Payame Noor University was founded in 1987. The nature and scale of its operation make PNU the most flexible and cost-effective higher education institution in Iran. It is also the largest state university in terms of student number and coverage. In 2006, the University enrolled about 431,840 students in 59-degree programs at 257 study centers and units. Case study in Vietnam п‚Ў Hanoi Open University was established in 1993. п‚Ў Hanoi Open University comprises 8 training faculties with highly-qualified and experienced professors, doctors, masters and scientific staff. п‚Ў The annual number of students approximates to 40.000, around 21% out of which are full-time, 11% part-time, and 68% distance learners. New opportunities for ODL in Asia Development of distance education through elearning GovernmentsвЂ™ increasing concern for mass education and life-long learning Impact of knowledge-economy on education reform and innovation UniversitiesвЂ™ actions in capacity building in the transition of educational paradigm to meet social demands Innovative practice in China п‚Ў 67 e-colleges formed in conventional universities п‚Ў Strategy focuses on вЂњReviving the country--through science and educationвЂќ and enlarging the scale of enrolment for higher education institutions. п‚Ў National resource center and public learning support system is under construction Enrolment Rate for HE, SHS, and JHS in China from 1990 to 2005 100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% HE SHS JHS 1990 1995 2000 2005 Graduates Ratio of CRTVUs in the Total Number of National HEIs 12.01% CRTVUs Other HEIs Adult HEIs Conventional HEIs Transmitting system of satellite and computer-based network Sat. Receiver IP/VBI CCTV--IP/VBI Digital Transmission server Distance Teaching Platform Fiber Teaching platform at PRTVU Fiber / CERNET/CHINANET Sat. Receiver IP/VBI Teaching platform at branch school ISDNгЂЃADSL Cable T VBI Students PSTNгЂЃISDNгЂЃADSL Observation in India The Indian educational system again observed a paradigm shift in the late 90s when the Govt of India allowed access to Internet and private ISPs joined the bandwagon. (Ramesh Sharma) 96 institutions is offering distance education ----Dr. Siran Mukerji and Purnedu Tripathi India has grasped the opportunity of the 3 industry revolution and rank itself in the second strongest country of information technology the world over. New development in Thailand п‚Ў Thailand Cyber University (1999) Develop UnitNet IT infrastructiure, to connect every institution Supporting the production of courseware Developing the Learning management system Developing the e-library, e-community and learning resource sharing center. STOU is also currently developing an integrated elearning system, presenting further possibilities for interactive activities as well as offering on-demand access to the universityвЂ™s educational radio and television programs. E-learning in Malaysia п‚Ў Open University Malaysia (2000) п‚Ў University Tun Abdul Razak (1997) п‚Ў The cyber corridor in Malaysia is an encouraging development. п‚Ў Asia-Pacific knowledge base was built up in Malaysia. E-learning in Singapore п‚Ў Singapore has a very well-established computer and communications network covering all institutions and households. п‚Ў The polytechnics in Singapore have embarked on the use of the Internet to deliver some of their courses. These courses are aimed at supplementing conventional lectures for fulltime students and providing continuing education and life-long learning for working adults. E-learning in Korea Since 1997, KNOU has been performing elearning projects as a member of KVC consortium. Seoul Digital University (2000) There are 17 Cyber colleges and universities at the moment. Korea has taken a strong approach to elearning and have surpassed CanadaвЂ™s lead on high speed broadband implementation. Approximately 76.9% of Koreans have owned PC, among which 82.3% can use internet and 57% are with broadband equipment. (Data from 2002) E-learning in Sri Lanka Distance Learning is underway with the assistance from the International Development Association (IDA) of the World Bank. US$ three million has been invested in the special training project in ICT. The Government of Sri Lanka contributed US$ one million. In the OUSL, the students may register to virtual classroom, and e-forum to receive elearning. E-learning in Japan GLAD (Gateway to Learning for Ability Development) NICER (National Information Center for Educational Resources): NIME is planning to prioritize its R&D into eLearning . They aim to support e-Learning courses at universities and other institutions by centralizing all Japanese higher education e-Learning services, thereby enhancing convenience to students. What else? п‚Ў Distance education is still a new phenomenon in the newly transitioned economies like Mongolia, Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam. (Dr. Naveed A. Malik, et al) п‚Ў Due to reverse economic and social conditions of developed countries, countries like Bangladesh could not yet establish a reliable e-learning system or institution. (Md Shahid Uddin Asbar) Issues in Asian Open Universities Imbalanced infrastructure and educational resources; Lack of well-designed overall planning and uneven development for e-learning; Lack in high qualified staff members for elearning support and guidance; Less attention for effective application of new technologies and resources; Lack in joint research on some common issues Measures to be taken Enhance cross-culture exchanges and collaboration through seminars, workshops, annual conferences and staff exchange schemes; Establish knowledge base to share good resources and practice; Increase awareness of student-focus approach within academic circles; Encourage innovation and reform in educational management and teaching methodology; Forge benchmarking and criteria for qualify ODL; Encourage bi-lateral and multi-lateral cooperation in elearning resources and application Meeting challenges п‚Ў Establishing well-functioned mechanism to п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў п‚Ў fulfill education goal; Reinforcing traditional ways of organizing education by innovative methods and practice; Connecting with different learning community through e-learning Making on-line learning curriculum to cater for economic and market needs; Developing long-term strategies for life-long learning Perspective of Asian Open Universities п‚Ў All of the OU in Asia will play a more important role in their respective countries when life-long learning from slogan to reality; п‚Ў Closer relationship will form within certain areas when knowledge-based resource centers are built up; п‚Ў Asian Open Universities are catching up with the mainstream of international ODL in due time.