China and East Asia in the 600-1450 Period Chapters 12 and 13 AP World History Mr. Bartula Asia and the World Eurocentrics tend to regard the European voyages of the 1400s and 1500s as unprecedented вЂњdiscoveries.вЂќ пЃ® Actually, much of the world was interconnected, centered around trade with Asia through the Indian Ocean. пЃ® Asia was the birthplace of many important trade goods, inventions, and other developments during the 600-1450 period. пЃ® Straits of Malacca and the Kra Portage Cotton and Indigo Grown in Indus Valley since ca 2300 BCE пЃ® Spread to Middle East, Mediterranean, and China. пЃ® Indigo dye supplied the characteristic blue cotton garb of the Chinese пЃ® Cotton sails enabled the Chinese navy to travel long distances. пЃ® India and Food Crops India was not an important cradle for food crops. пЃ® IndiaвЂ™s contribution was to accept foods from other areas, improve them, and send them on to the rest of the world. пЃ® Examples: citrus fruits and sugar from Southeast Asia; watermelon, sorghum, and bananas from Africa. пЃ® Indian numerals and mathematics Indians were familiar with Greek, Mesopotamian, and Chinese mathematical concepts, and went far beyond them. пЃ® Base 10 system пЃ® Zero developed by Buddhists by 499 CE. пЃ® Silk Silk industry dates back to Shang Dynasty пЃ® Silk Road opened during the Han Dynasty пЃ® The Chinese kept silk production secret until the 6th century CE. пЃ® Nestorian Christians smuggled silk worms and mulberry leaves out of China. пЃ® The silk trade led to the spread of Buddhism out of India into China and Central Asia. пЃ® Spices Black pepper grown in East Java, Sumatra, and southern India пЃ® Introduced to Mediterranean by 1st century CE пЃ® Chinese appetite for fine spices led to trade in cloves, nutmeg, and mace from Southeast Asia to China пЃ® Muslims in Middle East introduced spices to Europeans пЃ® Champa Rice пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® From Southeast Asia, Indochina Early ripening (more than one crop per growing season possible), highly nutritious, drought resistant Led to population explosion in China Chinese introduced rice to India, India to the Middle East, Middle East to Europe. Rice Paddy Paper, Compass, Porcelain пЃ® All Chinese inventions, transferred to India, the Middle East, then to Europe Printing Invented by Buddhists in China in 7th century C.E. пЃ® Spread to India, then to Europe пЃ® Not important in the Middle East because of Islamic prohibitions against images. пЃ® Equine Collar Harness Invented in China during Shang Dynasty пЃ® An improved version developed in China around 500 CE and spread westward пЃ® Played major role in European agricultural development and in European population growth during the Medieval Era. пЃ® Themes of Chinese History The oldest continuous civilization and the dominant cultural center of East Asia. пЃ® Confucianist philosophy is reflected in all aspects of life пЃ® The dominant strain of Confucianism in China stresses the perfectibility of man through self-cultivation, education, and ritual пЃ® The Three Kingdom Period 220-589 After the collapse of the Han Dynasty China broke up into semi-independent warring states. пЃ® During this period Confucianism declined as the dominant philosophy пЃ® It was replaced by two salvation religions: Neo-Daoism and especially Buddhism. пЃ® Buddhism entered China from India along trade routes. пЃ® The Golden Age of China 589-1217 Sui Dynasty 589-618 пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Sui Wendi reunified China and established the Sui Dynasty Buddhism became the dominant governing philosophy of China for the next several hundred years. The Sui were responsible for many large building projects, including the Grand Canal which linked northern and southern China High taxation and forced labor caused peasant revolts, which brought the Sui Dynasty to an end. The Grand Canal The Grand Canal The Grand Canal Today Tang Dynasty 618-907 Under the Tang Dynasty China reached its greatest geographic extent пЃ® China, as the preeminent civilization in East Asia, had enormous cultural influence on Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia during this and succeeding periods. пЃ® During this period Europe was experiencing cultural decline during the вЂњDark Ages.вЂќ пЃ® Tang Government Organization ChangвЂ™an, The Tang Capital of China (modern Xian) Cosmopolitan center of trade пЃ® Eastern end of the Silk Road пЃ® Temples representing Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, Islam, Nestorian Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, and many other faiths and philosophies пЃ® Large marketplace with wares from all over the known world пЃ® Mosque, showing mixed Arab and Chinese design, in ChangвЂ™an Chinese culture under the Tang Buddhism was the dominant religion or philosophy пЃ® Poetry, the dominant Chinese literary form, became the essential form of social communication (everyone wrote poetry). пЃ® Calligraphy, landscape painting also highly developed artforms пЃ® Advances in astronomy, chemistry, and medicine пЃ® Tang Dynasty Coin Landscape painting Li Po, the greatest Chinese poet Li PoвЂ™s Poetry IN THE MOUNTAINS ON A SUMMER DAY Gently I stir a white feather fan, With open shirt sitting in a green wood. I take off my cap and hang it on a jutting atone; A wind from the pine-trees trickles on my bare head. IN the third month the town of Hsien-yang Is thick-spread with a carpet of fallen flowers. Who in Spring can bear to grieve alone? Who, sober, look on sights like these? Riches and Poverty, long or short life, By the Maker of Things are portioned and disposed; But a cup of wine levels life and death And a thousand things obstinately hard to prove. When I am drunk, I lose Heaven and Earth, MotionlessвЂ”I cleave to my lonely bed. At last I forget that I exist at all, And at that moment my joy is great indeed. Tang Technology Printing Press пЃ® Altitude of the North Pole measured пЃ® Astronomical observations пЃ® Sun Simiao, notable Tang doctor Wrote textbooks and medical guides on gynecology, pharmacology, pediatrics, and acupuncture пЃ® Known as вЂњThe King of HerbsвЂќ пЃ® Empress Wu (Wei) 684-705 Greatest Tang ruler пЃ® Tang DynastyвЂ™s height of military power пЃ® Disliked by Chinese пЃ® Strong Buddhist пЃ® Decline and Fall of the Tang Invasions by Turks and peasant rebellions weakened the Tang Dynasty пЃ® ChangвЂ™an was captured by invaders and then recaptured, badly damaged пЃ® Central government lost power пЃ® Tang collapsed in 907 пЃ® The Song Dynasty 960-1279 пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Two separate segments: Northern Song 960-1127. Capital Kaifeng. Conquered by Jurchens Southern Song 11271269. Capital Hangzhou. Conquered by Mongols. Compared to Tang Dynasty, Song China was geographically smaller but much wealthier. Developments Under the Song Dynasty пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Commercial Revolution led to development of a market economy throughout China, growth of international trade, and the use of paper money Agricultural Revolution changed the Chinese diet and led to a population explosion. Technological developments led China to the verge of industrialization: protoindustrialization. Developments Under the Song Dynasty Urbanization: Chinese cities became the largest and most prosperous in the world пЃ® Political changes: Emperors gained absolute power, nobility lost power пЃ® Confucianism regained dominance and continued to control the examination system. A public school system was established to train boys in Confucianism. пЃ® Kaifeng Hangzhou The Song Agricultural Revolution The conquest of the Northern Song by the Jurchens in 1127 led to a southward migration by the Chinese to below the Yangtze River. пЃ® This meant the majority of the Chinese now inhabited rice and tea growing regions. пЃ® At the same time, the Chinese began using porcelain cooking pots and plates. пЃ® With healthier food, the Chinese population began to grow dramatically. пЃ® Rice Cultivation Religious and Philosophical Changes пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® By the later Tang and Song dynasties, Buddhist monasteries and temples had gained enormous wealth. This caused the later Tang and Song Emperors to become suspicious of Buddhists and turn back to Confucianist philosophy. Confucianists believed Buddhism, as a foreign import, was responsible for ChinaвЂ™s problems Buddhism in China began to decline by the time of the Song Dynasty Neo-Confucianism пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® A combination of Confucianist, Buddhist, and some Daoist ideas Agriculture favored over commerce International trade and contact considered harmful to China Male dominance and patriarchy reinforced Considered responsible for blocking Chinese industrialization ChinaвЂ™s privileged position as The Middle Kingdom could be jeopardized by outside contacts. Foot-Binding in Song China пЃ® Broken toes by 3 years of age. пЃ® Size 5 ВЅ shoe on the right Foot-Binding in Song China Mothers bound their daughtersвЂ™ feet. Foot-Binding in Song China пЃ® пЃ® This was an upper class status symbol. Women were crippled The Results of Foot-Binding Some Elderly Chinese Women Still Have Bound Feet! The Sinic World of East Asia пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® The region historically under Chinese cultural influence Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia Chinese language as the language of the elite Chinese literary culture: Confucianism, poetry, etc. Bureaucracies, examination systems, national universities Six Broad Themes of Japanese History пЃ® All societies interact, but major transformations in Japanese history were distinguished by deliberate, massive cultural borrowings, followed by вЂњJapanizationвЂќ or adaption of foreign ways. Six Broad Themes of Japanese History пЃ® Japanese society accomodates aggressive pursuit of change within a framework of continuity. In other words, they change while maintaining tradition. Six Broad Themes of Japanese History пЃ® JapanвЂ™s insularity and isolation has fostered a social closeness. This is also a reflection of Confucianist values imported from China. Six Broad Themes of Japanese History пЃ® An inclination toward political and social stability is reflected in the longevity of political institutions like the monarchy. A preference for evolutionary rather than revolutionary change. Six Broad Themes of Japanese History пЃ® JapanвЂ™s size and lack of natural resources makes the relationship between domestic production and imported goods a critical factor in its economy. Six Broad Themes of Japanese History пЃ® Throughout its history Japan has experienced periods of reclusive withdrawal alternating with periods of active engagement with the outside world. JapanвЂ™s Classical Period ca 5501185 пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® The first period of deliberate cultural borrowing and adaptation. The Japanese studied and borrowed from Chinese culture, introduced to them by the Koreans. Among the cultural imports were Buddhism, Confucianist social and political values, and the Chinese written and spoken languages. Shinto Buddhism co-existed alongside the native Japanese religion, Shinto. пЃ® Shinto is a religion based on the worship of deities called Kami, who are considered benign and helpful to humans. пЃ® Shinto recognizes many sacred places: mountains, lakes, springs, etc. пЃ® 84% of modern Japanese practice both Shinto and Buddhism пЃ® Mount Fuji JapanвЂ™s Classical (Heian) Period ca 550-1185 пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Japan adopted a Confucianist style government, with an Emperor and an examination system for the bureaucracy in the Capital, Hei-an (modern Kyoto). Although Japanese was very different from Chinese, the Chinese writing system was adapted for use with Japanese. Japanese literature, particularly poetry, flourished in this period. Japanese Writing Japanese adapted about 1500 Chinese characters and supplemented them with additional characters representing phonetics. пЃ® Japanese has fewer sounds than English and all syllables are pronounced equally. пЃ® A change of pitch (tone) is used to indicate differences between two otherwise identical words. пЃ® Gairago or loan words have flooded the Japanese language: violin: biorin, beefsteak: bifuteki пЃ® Japanese Classical Literature Women made many literary contributions during the classical period. пЃ® Women did not work in government and therefore did not have to use the Chinese language, allowing them to experiment with the Japanese spoken and written language. пЃ® The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon, ca 996 Sei Shonagon was a lady of the court of the Japanese imperial family. пЃ® She was known for her quick wit, sunny disposition, and knowledge of the Chinese classics. пЃ® Her pillow book was partly a diary, partly a book of observations and poetry. пЃ® The Tale of Genji, by the Lady Murasaki Shikibu ca 973-1025 пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Often called the first novel, the story is centered on the life and adventures of Hikaru Genji, born to a Heian Emperor Lady Murasaki was the daughter of a court official who allowed her to study alongside her brother and learn Chinese. Little else is known of her life. Medieval Japan 1185-1600 JapanвЂ™s medieval period began as the central government gradually lost power to several noble families. пЃ® Warfare and destruction characterized the medieval period. пЃ® EuropeвЂ™s medieval period occurred during the same general time period, and the similarities are striking, particularly in the development of feudalism. пЃ® Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service. Japan: Shogun Land - Shoen Land - Shoen Protection Samurai Peasant Daimyo Loyalty Daimyo Samurai Peasant Loyalty Samurai Peasant Food Peasant Code of Bushido * Fidelity * Politeness * Virility * Simplicity Seppuku: Ritual Suicide It is honorable to die in this way. Kaishaku вЂ“ his вЂњsecondsвЂќ Full Samurai Attire Samurai Sword Osaka Castle Main Gate of Hiroshima Castle Similarities Between European and Japanese Feudalism Hierarchies пЃ® Codes of Loyalty and Conduct пЃ® Constant warfare пЃ® Weak central governments пЃ® Peasants made up vast majority of the population пЃ® Large fortresses (castles) пЃ® Differences Between European and Japanese Feudalism Europeans used formal contracts of loyalty (led to contract law, parliamentary government, etc.) пЃ® Japanese used informal agreements and pledges of loyalty. пЃ® In Europe feudalism ended as urbanization developed. пЃ® In Japan, urbanization did not end feudalism. пЃ® The Kamakura Shogunate 11801333 Shogun: Barbarian conquering great general. пЃ® Bakufu: tent government пЃ® The Kamakura shoguns held the real power in Japan. The Emperors in Kyoto were only figureheads. пЃ® Attempted Mongol Invasions The Mongols had conquered China and established a vast empire. пЃ® In 1272 and 1281 Mongol fleets carrying gunpowder weapons were sent to invade and conquer Japan. пЃ® Both fleets were destroyed by storms in the Sea of Japan: пЃ® The Ashikaga Shogunate 13331467 Took power after conflict among the daimyo overthrew the Kamakura Shogunate. пЃ® Weaker than the Kamakura Shogunate, it controlled only parts of some islands. пЃ® The Onin War of 1467-1477 ended the Ashikaga Shogunate and led to a century of civil war within Japan. пЃ® Zen Buddhism A version of Mahayana Buddhism which developed in Tang China and was later introduced to Japan. пЃ® It focuses on personal enlightenment and self-discipline through meditation. пЃ® Popular among the samurai in the medieval period. пЃ® Zen Buddhist dry garden Amida or Pure Land Buddhism пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Another version of Mahayana Buddhism imported from China. A more democratic version of Buddhism which taught that all people were eligible to reach the вЂњPure LandвЂќ as envisioned by the Bhoddisatva Amida. Popular among the peasants during the medieval period in Japan. Four Themes of Korean History пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® A sense of cultural closeness to China The transformation of borrowed traditions The limiting of outside influences and a tendency towards seclusion Social stability and hierarchy (Confucianist) in a homogenous society. KoreaвЂ™s Early and Classical Periods According to Korean mythology, Korea was founded in 2,333 BCE and named Choson. пЃ® From 50 BCE to 668 CE Korea was divided into three kingdoms, all strongly influenced by China пЃ® Although the Korean language is very different, Korea adopted the Chinese writing system, modifying some characters and inventing others. пЃ® Chinese culture and Buddhism entered Korea during the Tang Dynasty. The native Korean folk religion of shamanism survived пЃ® Korea then transmitted this culture to Japan. пЃ® Korean Religion Korean Society пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® пЃ® Korea was part of ChinaвЂ™s East Asian trading system At times KoreaвЂ™s rulers were vassals of the Chinese Emperors Korea rarely had a powerful military. Korean society was proud of its homogeneity and preferred seclusion to outside contact (except China). Traditionally called вЂњThe Hermit KingdomвЂќ Animosity towards Japan is ancient and reciprocated.