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State of Agricultural Cooperatives in Asia

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State of
Agricultural Cooperatives
in Asia
Dr Daman Prakash, Director
Rural Development and Management Centre,
New Delhi
Cooperative Movement is International
Encompasses all Types of Economies
Covers all Forms of Cooperatives
Based on Principles of Cooperation
COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES
ARE PROPAGATED BY
INTERNATIONAL
COOPERATIVE ALLIANCE
[ICA]
ICA
WORLD NETWORK OF
COOPERATIVES
Established 1895 in London by
International Cooperative Congress
800 Million Individual Members,
200 Member-Organisations,
90 Countries.
Head Office located in
Geneva. Switzerland,
and Regional Offices
ICA REGIONAL OFFICE
FOR ASIA-PACIFIC
IS LOCATED
IN NEW DELHI-INDIA
India
is an Important Member
of ICA with 21 National-level
Affiliates
COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES
safeguard independence,
autonomy and character
of cooperative institutions
all over the world
PRINCIPLES OF COOPERATION
<Definition>
“A cooperative
is an autonomous association
of persons united voluntarily
to meet their common economic,
social and cultural needs and
aspiration through a jointly-owned
and democratically-controlled
enterprise”
PRINCIPLES OF COOPERATION
Voluntary and Open Membership
Democratic Member Control
Member Economic Participation
Autonomy and Independence
Education, Training & Information
Cooperation among Cooperatives
Concern for the Community
COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLES
ARE BASED ON:
[A] Basic Cooperative Values
Self-Help, Self-Responsibility, Democracy,
Equality, Equity, and Solidarity
[B] Ethical Values
Honesty, Openness, Social Responsibility,
and Caring for Others
WORLD GROUPING
OF COOPERATIVES
Consumer Coops = 36%. Members 22%
Agricultural Coops = 42%. Members 61%
Other Forms = 22%. Members 17%
IN ASIA-PACIFIC REGION
LARGEST NUMBER OF
AGRICULTURAL COOPS
AND MEMBERS
AGRICULTURE IS THE
MAINSTAY OF ASIAN ECONOMIES
Review of Status
of Agricultural Cooperatives
in Asian Region
15 COUNTRIES
Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia,
Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia,
Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan,
The Philippines, Sri Lanka,
Thailand, Vietnam
BANGLADESH
P.152 million. 80% rural population.
40% share of agriculture in GDP.
Coops introduced in 1904.
57,000 coops [28,000 agri].
Two streams of cooperatives.
Major Sectors are:
Rice, Fisheries, Milk, Livestock
and Horticulture
CHINA
P.1.3 b. 80% farmers.
Organised 1918.
Commune/Collective System.
Coop Law 1935.
35,200 agri coops.
80,000 business units with
membership of 180 million.
INDIA
P. 1.1b. Estb in 1904.
Now 550,000 coops with 300 million
members. 65% agricoops.
All villages covered.
Major Sectors: Fertiliser, Sugar, Milk,
Oilseed. No. 1 milk producer.
IFFCO world’s largest.
Largest agricredit & HRD structure.
22 national federations.
INDONESIA
P.230 million.
1948 National Constitution
recognises Cooperatives.
9,200 KUDs, 13 million members.
Verticle structure of federations
[promotional+business].
Major sectors: Rice, Horticulture,
Plantations, Forests, Spices.
HRD structure exists.
JAPAN
P.130m.Coops. Reorganised after
World War-II. Agricoops strongest
and High-Tech. 750 JAs, 10 million
farmer-members. Full Services:
Marketing, Supply, Credit & Guidance.
�Cradle to Grave’ Services.
JA-Zenchu provides Education,
Farm Guidance and Audit.
LAOS PDR
P.6m.No formal agricoops at present.
Earlier 16,000 coops.
Reorganisation taking place
after internal conflicts.
Presently farmers’ groups.
Major sectors: Rice, Forestry,
Horticulture
MALAYSIA
P. 28 million. Introduced in 1922.
Reorganised. Coop Act 1993.
1973 Farmers’ Organisations Act.
598 agricoops, 645,000 members.
Major Sectors: Rice, Forestry,
Spices, Plantations
[Oilpalm, Rubber, Coconut]
MONGOLIA
P.3 million. 40% are nomads
handling livestock. First established
1921, later reorgannised 1930.
1998 Coop Law promoted livestock
& agricoops. Wool/Pashmina.
Presently – 900 agricoops.
MYANMAR
P.52 million. 66% people engaged
in agriculture. Coop Law of 1970.
6,700 coops, 500 coop syndicates.
Main sectors: Rice, Forestry,
Fisheries, Pulses, Sugar, Rubber,
Tobacco and Horticulture.
NEPAL
P.29 million. Agriculture share
40% in GDP. Employs 81% people.
First Coop Law 1959.
Reorganised-Law of 1992.
At present 2,400 agricoops.
Main Sectors: Rice,
Forestry, Horticulture, Dairy.
PAKISTAN
P.160m.
First established 1904.
In 2000 there were 66,178 coops
with 3.5 million members.
Agricoops 46,615.
Main Sectors: Wheat, Rice,
Fruits & Vegetables.
THE PHILIPPINES
P.85 million. Law of 1990.
42,000 registered coops with
6 million members.
Main Sectors:
Rice, Sugar, Forestry,
Fisheries, Tobacco, Horticulture
SRI LANKA
P.22 million. Estd 1904.
955 MPCS were amalgamated
in 1972 into 372 MPCS.
Main Sectors:
Rice, Plantations [Tea and Coffee],
Rubber, Spices, Maize,
Horticulture.
THAILAND
P.66 million. Introduced 1915.
Groups: Agricoops,
Land Settlement, Fisheries,
Consumer, Thrift & Credit,
and Service Cooperatives.
5,340 Coops with
8.3 million members.
VIETNAM
P.85 million. 78% workforce
depends on agriculture. 50% share
of GNP. 16,243 coop enterprises.
Transformation under way from
commune/collectives.
Main sectors: Rice, Forestry,
Fisheries, Horticulture, Sugar.
World’s largest table rice producer.
CONCLUSIONS
Agriculture plays important role;
Food production and employment;
Federal structure exists;
Mainly Government-sponsored;
Crucial period 1900-1940;
Gradual withdrawal of Govt from Coops;
Opportunities & Problems for Coops;
Low trade network among cooperatives;
Processing activity is Low.
Thank You Very Much
for your kind attention
State of Agricultural Cooperatives in Asia
Dr Daman Prakash. RDMC-New Delhi
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