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Ancient History of Asia

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Ancient History of Asia
Before & After the
Westerners Came
пЃєAncient civilizations in Asia
пЃєEmpires and dynasties
пЃ№Qin Dynasty
пЃ№tributary system
пЃєAfter Westerners came
пЃ№Opium War
пЃ№Meiji Restoration
пЃєFirst known civilization (7,000 B.C.)
пЃєEarliest cities (3,500 B.C.)
пЃєBecame part of the
Persian Empire in
6th century B.C.
Indus Valley Civilization
пЃєBronze Age culture (2500 B.C.-1700 B.C.)
пЃєCities dominated by large public buildings
пЃєInvasion by Aryans
from the north in
1500 B.C.
Chinese Civilization
пЃєShang Dynasty (1,600 B.C. - 1,047 B.C.)
пЃ№31 kings of same family
пЃ№weak central control
пЃ№written record
Zhou Dyn. (1047-256 B.C.)
Qin Dynasty (221-206 B.C.)
Qin Shi Huang (``First Emperor of Qin”)
пЃ№Centralized control
пЃёlaws, measures, currency, roads, Great Wall,
Later Dynasties
пЃєHan (206 B.C. - 220 A.D.)
пЃєJin (265 - 420)
пЃєSui (581 - 618)
пЃєTang (618 - 907)
пЃєSong (960 - 1279)
пЃєYuan (1271 - 1368)
пЃєMing (1368 - 1644)
China’s Tributary System
пЃєTraditional system for managing foreign
The ``Central Kingdom” worldview
пЃєMing dynasty (1368 - 1644) had the most
extensive tributary system
пЃ№tributes from East Asia, South Asia,
Southeast Asia, and even West Asia and
Zheng He’s fleet (1405-33)
пЃєOver 300 ships & 20,000 men
пЃєtrade and commerce
пЃєSoutheast Asia, South Asia,
West Asia, and East Africa
Zheng He’s expeditions
Ancient Southeast Asia
пЃєBuddhist kingdoms and empires
пЃєtrade with East and South Asia
пЃєnear continuous warfare
invasion by Mongols in the 1300’s
пЃєspread of Islam in 1400 - 1620
пЃєmosaic of small states
Cause of the Opium War
The Opium War (1840-42)
пЃєBritish navy captured Hong
Kong and defeated China
Historic Turning Point
пЃєSeries of western invasions
пЃєUnequal treaties with Western powers
пЃ№extraterritorial jurisdiction
пЃ№tariffs subject to approval by Western powers
пЃєShattered tributary system
пЃєExacerbated domestic crises
пЃєCulminated in the fall of Qing dynasty
Japan’s Meiji Restoration
пЃєSimilar challenges, different response
Japan’s 250-year seclusion
Commodore Matthew Perry’s warships
entered Tokyo Bay in 1853
Western Challenges
пЃєSeries of treaties with Britain, France,
Russia, and the Netherlands
пЃ№opening ports
пЃ№low customs duties
пЃ№extraterritorial jurisdiction
Domestic problems
Shogun (literally, ``general”) in Edo
(Tokyo) controlled the Emperor in Kyoto
Shogun’s government didn’t have strong
central control
пЃєJapan was divided into some 260
semiautonomous and mutually jealous
Meiji Restoration - I
Broke down shogun’s polity
пЃ№military coup
пЃєCreated centralized national government
пЃ№Used Emperor as focus of loyalty and symbol
of legitimacy
пЃ№Incremental steps to replace the autonomous
domains with prefectures
пЃ№Imperial Guard of 10,000 men
Meiji Restoration - II
пЃєTwo most important constituencies:
samurai and farmers
пЃєsamurai: privileges gradually removed
пЃєfarmers: land-tax reform
пЃ№eradicated payment in produce
пЃ№basis for modern capitalist economy
пЃ№109 million certificates of land ownership
Meiji Restoration - III
пЃ№established elementary schools
пЃ№universal compulsory education
пЃ№universal conscription (citizen army)
Meiji Restoration - IV
пЃєMeiji Constitution of 1889
пЃ№limited constitutional monarchy after
Bismarck’s Germany
пЃ№male suffrage based on property rights
пЃ№bicameral legislature with budgetary power
Emperor’s rights, prerogatives, and power
пЃёcommanded the military
пЃ№War Minister or Navy Minister from military
пЃєIndustrialization, technological
innovations, and growth of trade
New Imperialist Power
пЃєJapan defeated China in 1894-5
пЃєJapan defeated Russia in 1905
пЃ№Theodore Roosevelt: ``if [the Japanese] win
out, it may possibly mean a struggle between
them and us in the future”
пЃєJapan annexed Korea in 1910
Asia by World War II
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