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Federal Drugs Control Service
of the Russian Federation
Suppression of the financial infrastructure
of the drug trade
4th February, 2010
Moscow, Russian Federation
Nickolay Aulov
Deputy Director of the Federal Drugs Control Service
of the Russian Federation
Transnational criminal and
terrorist organizations (Islamic
Movement of Uzbekistan (IDU),
Hizb ut Tahrir, Akramia et al.) $ 15 billion
FDCS of Russian Federation:
Sharing of proceeds of the illegal
Afghan drug trade and heroin
trafficking along the Northern
Route
Small-scale traders and retail –
$ 1 billion
Drug laboratories in northern Afghanistan –
$ 1billion
Total: $ 17 billion
Taliban –
$ 30 million
Slave labor of farmers in southern Afghanistan –
$ 100 million
1
FDCS of Russian Federation:
The main channels of movement of drug income
Bank transfers
Non-bank systems (mail service, “Western Union” et al.)
Informal money transfer systems
(Hawalla, etc.)
Cash couriers, etc.
2
FDCS of Russian Federation:
Areas of cooperation of the competent bodies of different countries
1. Research in the sphere of working out of methods of revelation of the financial
transactions, connected with the illegal drug trade as well as typologies of
laundering of proceeds of the Afghan opiate sale
2. Research in the sphere of revelation of the geography of financial flows,
associated with the illegal Afghan drug trade
3. Detection of lending agencies and countries -“financial centers”
of the Afghan drug dealing
4. Organization of the full-fledged exchange of information concerning drug
trafficking from Afghanistan and financial flows resulted from the drug sale
5. Working out of mechanisms of exchange of the results of the research and
efficient cooperation between the national FIUs during financial investigations in the
cases connected with laundering of proceeds of the illegal Afghan opiate trade
3
FDCS of Russian Federation: Ways of financing of international drug-related
criminal structures
4
► Law enforcement agencies of Russian Federation are working continually on
revealing the sources and ways of payments of drug smuggling and financing
channels of international drug-dealing groups.
► According to the information from intelligence sources since 1990-s, one of the
wide-spread ways of settlings between accomplices of international drug-dealing
groups is the illegal (so-called “underground”) banking system known as “Hawala”.
► The first inquiry into this system and its organizers was hold on in 1996. It was
established in the course of investigation that the system had been created by
Afghans by order for the purpose of quick anonymous money transferring between
different countries. It was also ascertained that major heroin smugglers from
Afghanistan to Russia through Tajikistan were using widely the means of the
system.
► This system was known then as “Hawala” named after its creator afghan
Sherhan Mohammad Morad.
FDCS of Russian Federation: Ways of financing of international drug-related
criminal structures
5
► Following the work of Russian law enforcement agencies the activity of the
“Sherkhan bank” was suppressed, the accessories were brought to criminal
prosecution and made answerable for illegal banking and currency operations.
According to the delivered judgment the criminals were sentenced to different
periods of imprisonment.
► In spite of all the measures, in the course of investigation the complete set-up of
the “Sherkhan bank” wasn’t revealed and its main leader Sherkhan Mohammad
Morad wasn’t arrested. He is announced in international search and still escapes
justice.
► Sherkhan Mohammad Morad, wanted by russian law
enforcement agencies for crimes commitment including illegal
banking activities, money laundering, organization of criminal
society. This person can currently use an ID with the name of
Sherkhan Mohammad Farnood.
FDCS of Russian Federation: International investigation – «Hawalla»’s system.
1. Illegal money transfer offices in Moscow.
Москва
(Moscow)
Великобритания
(Great Britain)
США
USA
Германия
(Germany)
Китай (China)
Таджикистан (Tajikistan)
Узбекистан (Uzbekistan)
Афганистан (Afghanistan)
ИРАН Пакистан (Pakistan)
(IRAN)
ОАЭ
(UAE)
► From the very moment of its foundation
FDSC of Russian
Federation gives much consideration for revealing and suppressing
the financing channels of drug smuggling. Following the
investigations there came an information about two illegal money
transfer offices by “Hawala” system in Moscow.
N
► It was established that the offices exercised money transfers to
W
differentE countries including drug-supplying regions without showing
one’s
papers.
S
6
FDCS of Russian Federation: International investigation – «Hawalla» system.
1. Illegal money transfer offices in Moscow.
Moscow
Great Britain
Китай (China)
США
USA
Германия
(Germany)
Таджикистан (Tajikistan)
Узбекистан (Uzbekistan)
Афганистан (Afghanistan)
ИРАН Пакистан (Pakistan)
(IRAN)
ОАЭ
(UAE)
► From the very moment of its foundation
FDSC of Russian
Federation gives much consideration for revealing and suppressing
the financing channels of drug smuggling. Following the
investigations there came an information about two illegal money
transfer offices by “Hawala” system in Moscow.
N
► It was established that the offices exercised money transfers to
W
differentE countries including drug-supplying regions without showing
one’s
papers.
S
7
FDCS of Russian Federation: International investigation – «Hawalla»’s system.
2. Scheme of function of money transferring offices in Moscow
8
Head of office
Profit
cashiers
Client
drivers
► Money in cash for transferring was accepted every day in special buildings (so
called «Hawalla offices») located in Moscow. The head, one or more cashiers and
drivers (money collectors) carried out their functions in offices. A fee (from 0,8% up
to 3% from the sum), was taken and it was a profit of the group.
FDCS of Russian Federation: International investigation – «Hawalla»’s system.
2. Scheme of function of money transferring offices in Moscow
9
Head of office
cashiers
drivers
► Money in cash for transferring was accepted every day in special buildings (so
called «Hawalla offices»). The head, one or more cashiers and drivers (money
collectors)
carried
out their
A fee
(from 0,8%
up to 3%infrom
the
► Information
about
everyfunctions
transfer in
of offices.
client was
recorded
by cashiers
special
sum),
was taken and it was a profit of the group.
registers.
FDCS of Russian Federation: International investigation – «Hawalla»’s system.
2. Scheme of function of money transferring offices in Moscow
Destination
point
Sum of fee
Sum of
transfer
10
Name of sender
Relevant number
(code) of transfer
Name of
recipient
► Every register contained the following information: direction of transfer, sums of
transfer and fee, name of sender and recipient, and relevant code (number) of
transfer. According to this code it was possible to receive money in cash at the
destination office.
► No receipts were issued to clients, no other documentation was led in offices.
Clients didn’t need to show their identity cards. System functioned on trust and
provided almost absolute anonymity.
FDCS of Russia: «Hawalla» System, international investigation
ФСКН России: Система «Хавала», международное расследование
3. Principles of functioning of system. Information exchange between the central
2. Схема функционирования пунктов перевода денежных средств в Москве
and regional offices.
11
ОАЭ
(Дубаи)
N
►
W At the end
E of each working day a person, who fulfilled the duties of accountant, entered the
information of all money transfers to the computer and prepared consolidated reports on two
«Hawalla»
offices in Moscow. After the account preparation «accountant» sent it by email to
S
the central office, that in different time was dislocated in China and in the UAE (Dubai).
ФСКН
России:
«Хавала»,
расследование
FDCS of
Russia:Система
«Hawalla»
System, международное
international investigation
2. Схема
функционирования
пунктовInformation
перевода денежных
средств the
в Москве
3.
Principles
of functioning of system.
exchange between
central
and regional offices.
Великобритания Германия
(Great Britain) (Germany)
12
Москва
(Moscow)
Китай (China)
ИРАН
(IRAN)
США
USA
Таджикистан (Tajikistan)
Узбекистан (Uzbekistan)
Афганистан (Afghanistan)
Пакистан (Pakistan)
ОАЭ
(UAE)
► Reports that were received from different “Hawalla” offices were handled at the
central office and then the transactions data that was to be given out, was send
backwards.
N
►
It was established,
that large offices, similar to Moscow office, were operating in
W
E
the USA, Germany, Great Britain, China, Iran, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan,
S
Pakistan.
FDCS of Russia: «Hawalla» System, international investigation
3. Principles of functioning of system. Information exchange between the central
and regional offices.
13
Moscow
Dushanbe
Dubai
► The «Hawalla» system’s work was based on principles of fast data exchange with
the following mutual settlement between the offices. There were no money transfers
from one office to another.
N
► For example a transfer, that was sent from Moscow could be received in cash in
Dushanbe
after
the office in Tajikistan gets a fax or an email with the list of transfers
W
E
to be given out. The heads of the office in Dushanbe were responsible for creating a
cash money
reserve.
S
FDCS of Russia: «Hawalla» System, international investigation
3. Principles of functioning of system. Information exchange between the central
and regional offices.
14
Moscow
Dushanbe
Offshore
company
Dubai
► In case of cash money lack in one of the offices (for example in Dushanbe), after
the instruction given by the head of the central office, the head of another office (for
example in Moscow), organized selling of the collected cash money at the so called
«currency desk» charged the payment to the account of the offshore organization
► Central office conducted the distribution of the cash money charged to the
N of the offshore organization and sent the needed sum of money to the
account
account of the front organization in the country of dislocation of another office (for
W
example
in E Tajikistan), where the money was cashed. This is the way how the
needed cash reserve in one of the offices was replenished (in this case in
S
Dushanbe).
FDCS of Russia: System «Hawalla», international investigation
4. National security threat. Cooperation of Russia, USA, Germany and Great Britain
15
► It is established that the system was used by the international criminal groups,
which are involved in drugs smuggling. From the Moscow offices of “Hawalla” the
large sums of money resources were regularly sent to regions with a high drug
criminal level. Only during 5 months of 2005 more than 10 million of US dollars was
sent to the Afghanistan and more than 5 million dollars - to Tajikistan by means of
“Hawalla”.
► According to confiscated from «Hawalla» Moscow office documents, over the
period 2004 - May 2005, a total sum not less than 60 million US dollars was
transferred from Russia to various states.
► The system “Hawalla” functioned according to the terms of full anonymity. The
money flows passing through the mentioned system have been completely out of
state bodies control. The nettings between “Hawalla” offices were carried out with
the use of offshore organizations.
► In connection to the fact that “Hawalla” is the threat to safety of the involved
states, FDCS of Russia initiated joint investigation with the Department of Defense
of the USA and law enforcement agencies of Great Britain and Germany.
FDCS of Russia: «Hawalla» system, international investigation
5. The results of joint investigation
Германия
(Germany)
16
Москва
(Moscow)
США
USA
► As a result of joint investigation it was established that «Hawalla» system had
been created and its functioning was under control of the multi-branched
transnational criminal community, characterized by a clear role distribution, strict
discipline, efficient data exchange and heightened conspiracy measures
deployment.
► The assumed measures allowed to eliminate «Hawalla» offices in Moscow and
in theNUSA (Chicago). Archive documentation and money in cash were confiscated
from those offices. The leaders, cashiers and other participants of the international
W
E
drug group subdivisions were arrested and charged of illegal banking and criminal
income laundering. Numerous «Hawalla» offices heads’ property objects were
S
arrested.
FDCS of Russia: «Hawalla» system, international investigation
5. The results of joint investigation
17
Heads of «Hawalla» system
► Hashimi Farid
Said Kazim,
the head of one of
the«Hawalla» offices in
Moscow, was sent to
jail
► Hashimi Vahid,
the head of the«Hawalla»
office in Germany,was
arrested at the territory of
Uzbekistan,extradited to
Russia, awaiting the sentence
► M. Isak Rustam
► Gulam Haydar Afshar,
Ali Husayni,
the organizer of
«Hawalla» system, is
being wanted by
Interpol
the head of one of
the«Hawalla» offices in
Moscow, is being wanted by
Interpol
FDCS of Russian Federation: “Hawala” system, international investigation.
VI. Cooperation with the Department of Homeland Security of the United States of
America.
18
► “Hawala” system investigation was carried out by FDCS of Russian Federation
in a close cooperation with the Immigration and Custom Enforcement of the
Homeland Security Department of the United States of America. Due to the
intensive information exchange and well coordinated actions of the
law
enforcements of both countries the activity of a big “Hawala” office in Chicago was
suppressed.
► By the invitation of the Homeland Security Department of the United States of
America, representatives of FDCS of Russian Federation took part as observers in
some investigative operations in “Hawala” office located in Chicago. While a search
in the office archives of financial documentation were withdrawn, identical to the
accounts in Moscow office. Following analysis of the withdrawn documents,
numerous records with contact information of accessories in Moscow were
detected.
►Information exchange revealed that Moscow and Chicago “Hawala” offices had
the same mode of action.
FDCS of Russian Federation: The following conclusions can be drawn as
a result of the joint work done:
► illegal financial systems like Hawala are used actively for drug trafficking and
terrorist activity financing, that is particularly proved by the intelligence services
of Russia and the USA. The above systems represent an evident threat to the
national security. A widespread opinion that those systems are inoffensive with
their purposes and intended for mutual help of the members of ethnic groups in
different countries is groundless
► efficient work for detection, documentation and suppression of such
clandestine systems’ functioning can be conducted only through the
coordination of efforts and close cooperation between the law enforcement
agencies of different countries;
► taking into account the experience of joint work and the results obtained the
intelligence services of Russia and the USA can cooperate actively and
successfully for blocking such ways of financing of transnational drug
organizations and, if necessary, assume coordinating part in similar
international investigations.
19
FDCS of Russia
Thank You for attention
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