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Zoology 2100 Human Anatomy

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Zoology 2100 Human Anatomy
Dr. Nicole Okazaki
Time: 11-11:50 am (MWF)
Location: Room LL 126
Office hours: to be posted on line
Office: 408M
Phone: 626-6168
• Textbooks:
– Required: Human Anatomy 2nd ed.
McKinley&O’Loughlin McGraw and Hill
– Recommended: Anatomy & Physiology Revealed (CD
set volume 1-4)
– Recommended: Dictionary of word roots and
combining forms, Borror.
• Laboratory manual:
– Required: Human Anatomy. C. Eckels, McGraw Hill.
– Recommended: The Anatomy Student’s Self-Test
Coloring Book.
• Course website:
– Lecture slides, this syllabus, course notes, grades etc.
will be posted on the eWeber portal (WSU
– If space allows, notes will be posted on this website:
• Credit: 4 h (3 for class + 1 for lab)
• Grading:
- 4 lecture exams (including the cumulative final): 450 points
- Class quizzes 100 points
- 2 lab exams: 200 points + Weekly lab quizzes: 96 points
- Total possible points = 846 points
• Class exams
– Each “midterm” exam will be 100 points + Final exam 150
• Each “midterm” exam (other than the final), will cover
material from after the previous exam to present (not
• Final is a cumulative exam
• Tests:
– Exams will be Chi-tester exams given over 2-3 days.
– Exams can be taken at any testing centers with a
proctored computer room (6 locations at WSU)
– There are no makeup .You must have a valid
documented excuse for missing a test and you must
notify the instructor of your inability to take the test
prior to the beginning of the test period.
– A missed test will result in a 0 in the test.
• Laboratory:
– Two (2) laboratory exams
• Week 7
• Week 15 (lab final)
• Each lab exam = 100 points
– About 9 lab quizzes
• Each quiz = 12 points
• You can drop your worst grade (more on this later)
• Total of 96 quiz points
Grading scale
• There are no extra credit opportunities or making up
missed exams: YOU NEED EVERY POINT!!!! The
grading scheme is standardized:
A =
A- =
B+ =
B =
B- = 92-80%
C+ = 79-77%
C = 76-73%
C- = 72-70%
D+ =
D =
D- =
E =
Below 60%
• Laboratory:
– Lind Lecture Hall 003
• Go outside, opposite end of this building from the science lab (facing
the road), down the stairs. Almost looks like a loading dock/shipping
& receiving area. Look for a big sign on the door.
– Lab will often be open from 8:00-21:00 weekdays.
• Note: this is in addition to your assigned lab times. In between
“formal lab times”, there will be open study periods.
• See your lab instructors for these actual “open” times.
– You cannot skip or trade labs. The labs are currently full up.
• Snaking someone else’s lab makes it unfair for everyone who makes
the effort to do it right…don’t be a ____.
• Laboratory:
– The use of human cadavers is a privilege, NOT a
• You CANNOT bring friends, family etc. into the
cadaver lab UNLESS they are enrolled in this course.
• Treat the cadavers with respect: they were someone’s
loved one at one time.
– Anatomy is all about spelling
– Spelling errors WILL COST you.
• On an exam, if there is a fill-in-the-blank question,
and you misspell (1-2 incorrect letters), you lose ВЅ
• On a lab quiz, or the lab exams, if you misspell, you
lose ВЅ point.
• Words spelled completely incorrectly (more than 1-2
incorrect letters) will be considered incorrect.
– Why?!?!?!
• If you misspell on a diagnosis or surgical request, it
might result in amputation of the incorrect limb, or
incorrect drug administration and patient death.
• Class etiquette:
– Turn off your cell phones
– If “texting” during class is important to you, do
the class a favor: do not come … why did you
take the class in the first place?
– If you have a question, ask during class.
Chances are, others have the same question.
– Questions and discussion are welcome during
– Cheating: it’s not worth it. If you’re caught, the
punishment will ruin your academic career and
any chances of medical school, nursing etc.
• Students with disabilities:
– Please contact the Services for Students
with Disabilities office (SSD) in room 181
of the Student Service Center.
• 626-6413, TTY = 626-6850
• Pregnancy:
– Students who are, want to, or become
pregnant should consult with their
physician before continuing with this
• We will be working with cadavers. The
fumes are not the most ideal thing to expose
the fetus to.
Anatomy SI
Supplemental Instruction
The S.I. program at Weber State aids students
in lower division classes that have a lower than
average pass rate, but are required for students
to move on in their education.
The program is free for everyone to attend and
get help, you do not get points or graded but is
has been shown to help students tremendously
in the class.
There will be three SI sessions held every
week, times will be determined by next week.
Objectives of the SI
Go over information presented in class.
Answer any questions.
Review test material.
Look at pictures and slides from class.
Contact Info:
• Anatomy: study of structure
– Can be surface structure (2 eyes, 5 fingers)
– Can be through dissection (cutting open,
cutting apart)
• Cadaver, live patient, other animals with similar
– “Gross anatomy”: what you can see with your
eyes, and feel with your hands
– “Histology”: using a microscope to magnify,
so you can see cells and cell structures
Human structure “hierarchy of complexity”
Organ system (group of organs with a particular purpose ie. Cardiovascular
- Organ (2 or more tissue types that work together to
perform a function ie. Heart)
- Tissue (mass of similar cells that are part of an
- Cells (smallest unit that carries out basic life
functions…nothing smaller than a cell is
considered “alive”)
Organelle (microscopic structures within a cell
that help the cell function)
Molecule (components of the
organelles…protein, DNA, atoms etc.)
Anatomic variation
• We understand that not everyone is exactly
the same
– Different races, hair color, eye color, sex etc.
– Some people have different anatomy
• Situs invertus (then the heart is placed opposite of
the “normal” location)
• What is “normal” or “average”?
– Male: 22 years old, 70 Kg (154 Lbs), eats 2800
Kcal, in decent shape
– Female: 22 years old, 58 Kg (128 Lbs), eats
2000 Kcal, in decent shape
Characteristics of life
Cellular composition
Characteristics of life
1. Organization:
Living things are organized far more than
non-living things (you’re more complex than
a rock)
2. Cellular composition:
Living things are composed of cells
3. Metabolism:
Living things change molecules to control life
Anabolism: make something (protein from amino
Catabolism: break down something (amino acid
from protein)
Characteristics of life
4. Excretion:
We must get rid of the waste products formed
during metabolism
Very few molecules in your body last longer
than 1 year, they have to be made and broken
down constantly (some cells last your
5. Responsiveness:
Must be able to sense and respond to stimuli
Boiling water: if you’re alive, you’ll pull your
hand out…if you’re dead, you’ll leave it in
Characteristics of life (4)
6. Homeostasis:
Maintain a stable internal environment (internal
Not a “slave” to the environment
7. Development
Change in form or function over time
Differentiation: when you develop from non-specific “mass”
to functionally and structurally distinct form (fertilized egg
п‚® fetus)
Growth: when you grow in size
8. Reproduction:
All living beings can reproduce or produce “copies
Characteristics of life
9. Evolution:
All living things have the ability to mutate or
change their genetic makeup over time
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria, yearly strain of the
flu virus etc.
Anatomical terms
• Anatomical position
– When you are standing straight
up, feet flat on the ground (no
shoes), arms at your side, and
palms facing forward
– It is from this position that the
rest of the anatomical terms will
be derived
• Supine vs. prone
– Remember that the “anatomical
position” means that you stand with
your palms facing forward
• Supine = palms forward (towards the
• Prone = palms backward (towards your
• Important because of the way your
forearm bones are “
“ placed:
– Supine = radius & ulna parallel
– Prone = radius & ulna crossed
– Also: body laying face down: prone
“ up : supine
• Supine vs. prone
– In the anatomical position, the
forearm bones are parallel (your
forearms are supine)
• Anatomical “planes”
– Like a pane of glass, or slice
through your body
– Sagittal plane: cuts your body in
right and left
• A line that cuts from the nose to
belly button
• Sagittal plane
– This “cut” DOES NOT have to be through
your center
• IF IT IS through your center (and divides you in
half, or divides an ORGAN in half) = median or
mid-sagittal plane
• If it DOES NOT cut you or an organ in half =
sagittal plane
plane (median
sagittal plane)
Cuts the body cavity
in half, but legs are
not cut in half
Legs are in “sagittal
Sagittal plane
Body is not cut in
half…the “cut” is now
considered sagittal, NOT
median or mid-saggital
Right leg now in
median or midsagittal plane
• Anatomical “planes”
– Frontal plane (coronal): Cuts
your body into front and back
• A line that cuts across your body
from 1 shoulder to the other
• Anatomical “planes”
– Transverse plane: cuts across
your body perpendicular or at
a right angle to your height
• Divides your body into UPPER
and LOWER portions
• A cut across your belt line, or if
a hula-hoop cut you in half
• Anatomical “planes”
– Note that the sagittal, frontal and transverse
planes do not necessarily have to CUT YOU IN
• There are times when these “cuts” are made in
– Like the sagittal plane of the leg, or a sagittal plane of an
eyeball…these wouldn’t cut your body in half, but they’d
cut that organ in half
• “Directional” terms
– Used to describe the “location” or “direction”
on your body
• Usually to describe the location of 1 organ to
– More “scientific” way of saying that your heart
is “above your stomach, and in front of in front
of your lungs”
• “Directional” terms
– Ventral: towards your front
• “your nose is ventral to your ears”
– Dorsal: towards your back
• “your ears are dorsal to your nose”
– Anterior: towards your front
• Like “ventral”… “your nose is anterior to your ears”
– Posterior: towards your back
• Like “dorsal” … “your ears are posterior to your nose”
• “Directional” terms
– Trick question: which directional term (ventral or
dorsal) are your nails facing (or which side of
your body are your nails on)?
• Hint: think “anatomical position”
• “Directional” terms
– Trick question: which directional term (ventral or
dorsal) are your nails facing (or which side of
your body are your nails on)?
• Nails are on your dorsal surface
– Recall that the anatomical position calls for your palms to face
forward…your nails would face your back
– If we could get into a truly anatomical position, the soles of
your feet would also face forward!
• “Directional” terms
– Superior: “above” something else
• “Your head is superior to your heart”
– Inferior: “below” something else
• “your feet are inferior to your hands”
• Note: “superior” and “inferior” refer to the position
when you are in the “anatomical position” (standing
• “Directional” terms
– Medial: Towards the middle
• “Your heart is medial to your lungs”
• “Your nose is medial to your ears”
– Lateral: Away from the middle (towards a side)
• “Your arms are lateral to your heart”
• “Your ears are lateral to your nose”
• Ipsilateral = on the same side: “your right arm and
right leg are ipsilateral”
• Contralateral = on opposite sides: “your arms are
contralateral to each other”
• “Directional” terms
– Proximal: closer to the origin or attachment point
• “Your elbow is proximal to your shoulder”
• “Your knee is proximal to your hip”
– Distal: Farther from the origin or attachment point
• “Your wrist is distal to your shoulder”
• “Your ankle is distal to your hip”
• “Directional” terms
– Superficial: Close to the body surface (when
looking from the inside towards the skin)
• “You can see superficial scars because they’re on the
• “You can see superficial bruises because they’re close
to the surface”
– Deep: Closer to the inside of the body (farther
from the surface of the body)
• “Bones are deep to the muscle”
• Body regions:
– Used to denote specific regions of the body (arms,
legs, ankles etc.)
• Body is divided into 2 main regions during an exam
– Axial: head, neck, torso (trunk)
В» Trunk is subdivided into thoracic and
abdominal regions
– Appendicular: NOT “ your appendix”…your
» Extremities…arms, legs, limbs
• Axial regions
Cephalic: your head
Cranial: the back of your head
Facial: limited to your face
Cervical: front of your neck
Nuchal: back of your neck
• Axial regions
– Thoracic: chest
• Sternal: area in the center of your chest, the sternum
• Pectoral: area around your breast
– Scapular: area around your shoulder blades (on
your back)
– Interscapular: area between both of your
shoulder blades (on your back)
– Vertebral: area of your spine (on your back)
• Axial regions
– Abdominal: abdomen, usually divided into 4
Right upper quadrant: Your upper right
Right lower quadrant
Left upper quadrant
Left lower quadrant
• Axial regions
– Abdominal: Can also be divided into 9 regions
like a tic-tac-toe grid
• If you draw 2 lines from the middle of your collarbone
down to your pelvic bone = midclavicular lines
• Subcostal line = line that runs horizontally (across) the
bottom of your sternum
– Also runs through the cartilage that holds your 10th rib
• Intertubercular line: line that runs horizontally
(across) the “points” on your pelvic bone (the boney
points on your hips)
Also called
“lumbar region”
Also called
“iliac region”
Also called
“pubic region”
• Terms:
– “Sub-” = below (submarine)
• Subcostal = below ribs
– “Inter-” = between
• Intertubercul line = between the swells of your tuberculs (the
points on your pelvis)
– “Hypo-” = below (hypovolemic…hypo-osmotic)
• Hypochondriac = below the chondria of your rib (no, not someone
who doesn’t go to the doctor for anything)
– “Inguin-” = groin
– “Epi-” = around, above or over
• Epigastric = above / around the stomach
– “Ante-” = before, in front of
• Antebrachial = before the arm
• Appendicular regions
– Remember that these are your appendages (arms
and legs), not your appendix!
• Also called limbs or extremities
– Divided into:
• Upper limbs
• Lower limbs
• Appendicular regions
– Upper limbs
• Axillary: armpit region
• Brachium: upper arm (bicep area)
– Technically, your “arm” is the brachium ONLY
(the upper limb…what’s between your elbow and
• Antebrachium: forearm (“before the arm”)
• Carpus: wrist (“carpal tunnel”)
• Manus: hand
• Digits: fingers
• Appenddicular regions
– Lower limbs
• Gluteal: buttocks (where your leg enters your pelvis)
– Similar to the axillary (armpit), except for your legs
• Thigh: Where your femur, quad and hamstring muscles
are located
– Attached to your pelvis
• Crus: the “leg” proper
• Tarsus: your ankles
• Pes: foot
• Digits: toes
• Body cavities: within each region, there are a
number of internal cavities
– Organs within the internal cavities are called
– 2 major cavities
• Dorsal cavity: your head and spine (the cavity along
your head and back)
• Ventral cavity: your chest, abdomen and pelvic
cavities (the cavities in your chest, abdomen and pelvis)
• Dorsal body cavity
– 2 subdivisions: (recall the previous slide)
• Cranial cavity: enclosed by your skull (brain
– Contains your brain
• Vertebral cavity: enclosed by the spinal
– Note: not the “spinal chord”…that’s the neural
tissue that runs inside the spinal column…the spinal
column is the bone part (it’s like a tube)
– Lined by 3 layers of membrane = “meninges”
• Soft tissue that protects the neural tissue from the bone
• Ventral body cavity
– Split during fetal development into the thoracic
and abdominal cavity
• Separated by the diaphragm
• Remember terminology: thoracic cavity is “superior”
to the abdominal cavity…abdominal cavity is
“inferior” to the thoracic cavity
– Both cavities are lined by serous membrane
• Secrete substance similar to blood serum…hence the
name “serous” = serum
• Ventral body cavity
– Thoracic cavity = 3 regions:
• Right, left and median (middle)
– Separated by the “mediastinum”
– Right and left = lungs
В» Lined by a 2-layered membrane = pleura
В» Rib-side membrane = parietal pleura
В» Lung-side membrane = visceral pleura
В» Each membrane separated by a fluid space =
pleural cavity, which contains pleural fluid
В» It is more common to call the right and left
cavities “pleural cavities”
“Pleurisy”: when
the pleura get
If this happens, the
parietal and visceral
pleura will rub
against each other,
and this is quite
painful…it gets
painful to breathe
• Ventral body cavity
– Thoracic cavity = 3 regions:
• Median portion or mediastinum
– Esophagus, trachea, heart, thymus and the major
blood vessels leading to and from the heart
– Heart is enclosed by a 2 layered membrane =
» Parietal pericardium = “outside” membrane,
closest to the sternum
» Visceral pericardium = the “heart side”
В» Separated by pericardial cavity, and pericardial
when the
pericardium gets
Like pleurisy, this can
make breathing
painful, and almost
feel like one is having
an heart attack.
• Ventral body cavity
– Abdominal-pelvic cavity
• 2 “cavities” although not separated by any
membrane per se
• Abdominal cavity = digestive organs, kidneys,
• Pelvic cavity = bladder, rectum, reproductive
– Think of the pelvic cavity as a “bowl” that holds the
bladder, rectum and reproductive organs (all the
“uncomfortable-to-talk-about stuff”)
• Ventral body cavity
– Abdominal-pelvic cavity
• Peritoneum: moist, serous (serum-like)
– Parietal peritoneum lines the walls of the abdominal
– Visceral peritoneum covers most of the stomach,
intestines and liver
– The peritoneal cavity = the space between the
visceral and parietal membrane layers
В» Has peritoneal fluid
• Ventral body cavity
– Abdominal-pelvic cavity
• Peritoneum: moist, serous (serum-like)
– Intestinal tract is connected to the dorsal abdominal
wall by a clear membrane called “mesentery”
В» This is where the blood enters and leaves the
intestinal tract
В» Mesentery is a specialized region of the
peritoneum (if you could pull out the
peritoneum like a table cloth, you would also
pull out the mesentery)
• Ventral body cavity
– Abdominal-pelvic cavity
• Mesentery: specialized region of the
peritoneum that surrounds the intestinal tract
– When “wrapped” around the intestinal “tube”,
called “serosa” (the outer surface of the intestinal
tract…what you see when you cut open the
– In the colon, this region is called “mesocolon”
• The “visceral peritoneum” consists of the
mesentery and serosa (including the
• Ventral body cavity
– Abdominal-pelvic cavity
• There is also a specialized fatty membrane,
with a large number of blood vessels that hangs
from the stomach (inferolateral) like a drape or
skirt over the intestines = “greater omentum”
– Often used to “cover” regions of the intestine that
have been injured (if you cut out a portion of
intestine, the omentum will “migrate” and cover it)
• There is also a smaller version of this
membrane that hangs between the stomach and
liver = “lesser omentum”
Saggital section
Transverse section
• Organ systems
• Systems for protection, structural support and
– Integumentary system
– Skeletal system
– Muscular system
• Systems for internal communication
– Neural system
– Endocrine system
• Systems for fluid transport
– Circulatory system
– Lymphatic system
• Organ systems
• Systems for defense
– Immune system
• Systems for input and output
– Respiratory system
– Urinary system
– Digestive system
• Reproduction
– Reproductive system
• Terms:
– “Viscus” = body organ
– “Pleur-” = side, rib side
– “Pariet-” = wall
• The “parietal pleura” is the wall facing the ribs
– “Mediastinum-” = middle
– “Peri-” = around
• The “pericardium” is the membrane around the heart (cardium)
– “Retro-” = behind
• Kidneys are “retroperitoneal”…they’re behind the peritoneum
– “Mes-” = in the middle
• The “mesentery” is in the middle of the intestine, where the blood
vessels lie
– “Omentum” = covering
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