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Human Anatomy - El Camino College

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Human Anatomy
An Introduction to Anatomy
Chapter 1
Introduction to Anatomy
• Anatomy is a broad field of science in which the
body is studied at different levels.
• Definition of anatomy (“I dissect”):
study of the human body or the science of form
(morphology)
• Physiology is the study of body function. Theme:
“Structure Determines Function” .
Anatomy Terminology
Mastery of the Language of Anatomy is essential
for your success in this class
A. Pay attention to Greek and Latin roots
B. To learn this new language:
- Create vocabulary flashcards pertaining to each
chapter
- Practice the new vocabulary consistently
- Recognize that different terms can be used to
describe the same structure
Metric System (Appendix A)
Length, volume, weight are measured in metric units
• Length
• Volume
• Weight
Anatomical Variability
Structures presented in books are largely representative
of those found in individuals
Due to genetic diversity every individual is not structurally
identical
Neither do sensory organs perceive the environment in
exactly the same way.
Branches of Anatomy
• Gross anatomy
• Microscopic (histology) anatomy
• Developmental anatomy
• Embryology
• Pathological anatomy
• Radiographic anatomy
• Functional morphology
Gross and Microscopic Anatomy
•
Gross (large) Anatomy:
Technique - Dissection (cut apart)
- Regional Anatomy
- Systemic Anatomy
- Surface Anatomy
•
Microscopic Anatomy – structures smaller
than 0.1 mm
- Cytology
- Histology
LE 1-1
1nm
10nm
100nm
1пЃ­пЂ пЂ m 10пЃ­пЂ пЂ m 100пЃ­пЂ пЂ m 1mm
10mm 100mm
1m
Transmission electron microscope
Scanning electron microscope
Compound light microscope
Unaided human eye
10m
Levels of Structural Organization
Chemical п‚®
Cellular п‚®
Tissue п‚®
Organ п‚®
Organ System п‚®
Organism
- result of all the simpler levels working together to
sustain life
- Homeostasis (homeo, unchanging + stasis, standing)
- Disease = failure of maintaining homeostasis
Structural Organization
Chemical and Cellular Level
•
Chemical Level:
Atoms - microscopic building blocks of matter пѓ molecules пѓ Macromolecules - building blocks of structures found
at the cellular level пѓ Four Classes
•
Cellular Level:
Cells – smallest structural unit of life
Cellular Organization
•
Cell - composed of organelles and cytoplasm
surrounded by a plasma membrane
•
Human body contains many distinct types of
cells
- specialized to perform specific functions
•
The structure of each cell type is related to its
function
Tissue Level
•
Tissue - a group of similar cells that perform a
common function
•
4 major types of tissues:
- Epithelial (epithelium)
- Connective
- Muscle
- Nervous
•
Histology
Organ Level
•
An organ - a group of 2 or more tissue types
- one or more primary tissues and several secondary
tissues
•
Example: the stomach
Primary tissue - inside epithelial lining involved
with secretion & absorption
Secondary tissues - connective, vascular,
nervous, and muscle tissues
Organ (Body) System Level
•
An organ or body system consists of various
organs with similar or related functions
- work together to accomplish a common purpose
•
There are 11 major systems of the body
Figure 1.2a–c
Figure 1.2d–f
Figure 1.2g–i
Figure 1.2j–l
Anatomical Position
Figure 1.3
• Person stands erect with feet together and eyes forward
• Palms face anteriorly with thumbs pointed away from the
body
• Right and left always refers to the sides belonging to the
person or specimen being viewed – never to the viewer
• Note - four legged animals have a different anatomical
position than humans
- their ventral is on the inferior side and dorsal on the superior side
- in humans ventral and anterior is the same and so is dorsal and
posterior
Regional Terms
- names of specific body area
Axial region (main axis):
Trunk further divided
- Thorax
- Abdomen
- Pelvis
- Perineum
Appendicular region –
appendages/extremities
- Fundamental subdivisions
Figure 1.3
Figure 1.4
Thoracic Region
•
Upper portion of the trunk:
Mammary
Sternal - thoracic/thoracis
Axillary - axilla
•
Vertebral
Upper Extremity Regions
•
Acromial (acromion)
•
Brachial (brachium)
•
Cubital (cubitis)
•
Antebrachial (antebrachium)
•
Manual (manus) - palmar and dorsum
The manus has 3 main regions:
•
Carpal (carpus)
•
Metacarpal
•
Digital or phalangeal (digits or phalanges) - Pollex
Lower Extremity Regions
•
Femoral/femur
•
Patellar /patella
•
Popliteal/popliteus
•
Crural/crus (leg) regions
- sural/sura (calf), peroneal/peroneus (fibular)
•
Pes (feet)/ Pedal (foot)
- planta/plantar, dorsum, calcaneal/calcaneus (heel)
The pedal has 3 major divisions:
•
Tarsal (tarsus)
•
Metatarsal
•
Digital or phalangeal (digits or phalanges) - Hallux
Pelvic/Pelvis Region
Lower portion of the trunk:
•
Inguinal (inguen)
•
Pubic (pubis)
•
Perineal (perineum)
•
Lumbar (lumbus)
•
Sacral
•
Gluteal (gluteus)
Key:
(a) Anterior/Ventral
(b) Posterior/Dorsal
Directional Terms
Terms to locate structures and regions - anatomical position:
•
Superior (cranial, cephalic)
•
Inferior (caudal)
•
Anterior (ventral)
•
Posterior (dorsal)
•
Medial
•
Lateral
•
External (superficial)
•
Internal (deep)
•
Proximal
•
Distal
Table 1.1
Table 1.1
Table 1.1
Figure 1.5
Planes of the Body
Body sections - 4 main planes of reference:
•
Sagittal plane – Midsagittal/Parasagital
•
Coronal (frontal) plane
•
Transverse plane
•
Oblique section
(a)
(c)
(b)
Posterior
Basic Vertebral Body Plan
Figure 1.8
Human Body Plan
• Tube-within-a-tube body plan
- inner tube (respiratory and digestive organs)
- outer tube (axial skeleton/muscles; nervous structures)
• Bilateral symmetry
- paired structures
- median plane structures unpaired
• Dorsal hollow nerve cord
- runs along the back in the median plane
- becomes brain and spinal cord
Vertebrae
• Notochord (back string)
- most replaced by vertebrae
- some persists as cores of discs between vertebrae
• Segmentation –repeating units of similar structure
- ribs and muscles between the ribs
- spinal nerves
- vertebral column
• Pharyngeal pouches – pharynx (throat region)
- out-pocketings correspond to clefts between fish gills
- give rise to some head/neck structures (middle ear cavity)
(a)
(b)
(c)
Body Cavities
Figure 1.9
Dorsal Body Cavity
- Cranial Cavity
- Vertebral Cavity
Ventral Body Cavity – contains the viscera
Consists of 2 major divisions :
- Thoracic Cavity contains the pleural cavities and the
mediastinum
- Abdominopelvic Cavity (enclosed by the abdominal
wall and pelvic girdle)
Divided into 2 parts: abdominal and pelvic cavities
Key:
(a) Lateral view
(b) Anterior view
Diaphragm and Peritoneal Cavity
•
Diaphragm muscle
- separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
•
Abdominopelvic cavity
– many of the organs are surrounded by a peritoneal
cavity
• Serous cavities - slitlike space lined by a serous
membrane (serosa)
- Pleural cavity
- Pericardium cavity
- Peritoneum cavity
• Parietal serosa – forms the outer wall of the cavity
and is continuous with the inner serosa
• Visceral serosa – covers the visceral organs
• Serous Fluid – watery lubricant secreted by both
serous membranes
Pericardial, Pleural, Peritoneal
Figure 1.10
(b)
(c)
View
Posterior
(d)
Anterior
Other Cavities
• Oral cavity (mouth)
• Nasal cavity
• Orbital cavities
• Middle ear cavities
• Synovial (joint) cavities
Other Cavities
Figure 1.11
Abdominopelvic Region
• To facilitate its study, the abdominopelvic region
can be divided into regions and quadrants
• The four quadrants:
right and left upper quadrants
right and left lower quadrants
Abdominal Quadrants
Right upper
quadrant
Left upper
quadrant
Right lower
quadrant
Left lower
quadrant
Nine Abdominal Regions
Divided into 9 regions to describe location of internal organs
Organs in Abdominal Regions
•
R. Hypochondriac - right, upper 1/3; gallbladder, liver, r. kidney
•
Epigastric - Upper, central 1/3; liver, stomach, pancreas, duodenum
•
L. Hypochondriac - left, upper 1/3; spleen, colon, liver, l. kidney,
small intestine
•
R. Lumbar - right, lateral 1/3; cecum, ascending colon, liver, r. kidney,
small intestine
•
Umbilical - center; umbilicus (navel) is located here; jejunum, ileum,
duodenum, colon, kidneys, major abdominal vessels
•
L. Lumbar - left, lateral 1/3; descending colon, l. kidney, small intestine
•
R. Iliac (inguinal) - right, lower 1/3; appendix, cecum, small intestine
•
Hypogastric (pubic) - lower, center 1/3; urinary bladder, small
intestine, sigmoid colon, female reproductive organs
•
L. Iliac (inguinal) - left, lower 1/3; small intestine, descending colon,
sigmoid colon
Microscopic Anatomy
• Form of anatomy known as histology - the study of tissue
and their cells (cytology)
• Microscopy is used to investigate the fine structure of
organs, tissues, and cells
Note - specialized cells form different types of tissues, thus
different tissues do not look or function in the same way
Illness or physiological problems experienced in the body
occur at the cellular level
2 types of microscopes – light and electron
• Light (LM): uses a beam of light
- produces sharp, detailed images of sectioned tissues
and cells but has low resolution
• Electron (TEM or EM): uses electron beams
- much smaller wavelength to produce sharp images
- show finer detail but are flat and colorless
- Scanning electron microscopes: electron beam scans
the specimen causing secondary electrons to be emitted
- specimens are preserved and coated with metal
- provides 3-D pictures of whole, unsectioned surfaces
Light and Electron Microscopy
Ciliated epithelium
(330X)
(1700X)
(3300X)
Figure 1.13
Preparing Human Tissue
• 1st - specimens are fixed (preserved)
• 2nd - sectioned (thinly sliced)
• 3rd - stained (color stains or metals added)
Note -Type of stain used depends on the microscope
• Light microscopy – organic dyes
- acidic and basic stains
• Electron microscopy – heavy-metal salts
- deflect electrons
- color property of light
Artifacts (distortions)
• As you study specimens under the microscope
or by an unaided eye structures may not strictly
represent that of those in living tissue
• Process of preserving and staining alters the
tissues and may create artifacts or distortions
Clinical anatomy and medical imaging techniques
- noninvasive diagnostic tools
Figure 1.14
X Rays
Traditional more non-invasive method of diagnosis
• X-rays (electromagnetic waves) are directed at the body
- some x-rays are absorbed
- amount of absorption depends on the density of matter encountered
• Radiograph image is a negative:
- darker exposed areas represent soft organs (easily penetrated)
- light, unexposed areas correspond to denser structures such as bones
• Contrast medium (solution with heavy elements like barium)
- used to view soft tissue organs
• Advanced X-Ray techniques use computer-assisted imaging
technologies
Computed Tomography (CT) or CAT Scan (axial)
A rotating tube and recorder move around the person as X-rays are taken
A computer processes the images to create a single transverse image that
reveals all organs at their best angles with almost no blocking structures
Xenon CT - a CT taken in combination with inhaled xenon. Absence of
xenon in the picture indicates a stroke is occurring
Figure 1.15
Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
Figure 1.16
• Patient is given a contrast medium - �before’ and �after’ images
- computer processes the x-ray images and subtracts the differences
- eliminates all traces of body structures that obscure the vessel
PET (Positron Emission Tomography)
- access functional flow of blood to the heart & brain
Produces images by detecting
radioactive isotopes injected into the
body
These isotopes are used as tags to
follow the flow of blood to the
brain and heart
As the isotope decays it emits a
gamma ray detected by sensors,
translated into impulses and sent to
a computer
There will be a greater concentration
in areas that are more active or are
receiving more blood
Due to cost and other limitations it is
being replaced with the MRI.
Figure 1.17
Sonography or Ultrasound Imaging
Figure 1.18
Pulses of high frequency (ultrasonic) sound waves reflect (echo) off tissue
Computer analyzes the echoes to construct sectional images
Equipment –inexpensive/safer technique can detect developing fetuses
Not used for viewing air-filled structures or structures surrounded by bone
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
1В° detects levels of H to produce high-contrast images of soft tissues
H+ (body’s water) aligns with the magnet - a radio frequency is emitted to
misalign them as they realign with the magnet a radio wave is again emitted
Sensors detect the waves, computerized signals produce detailed images of
soft tissues
Figure 1.19
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