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TREE ANATOMY

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TREE ANATOMY
TREE CUT-AWAY
WARPS IN LUMBER
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
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A reaction of organic compounds from
carbon dioxide and water.
Light is absorbed by chlorophyll, the
green pigment present in leaves.
This creates energy for the tree.
The by-product off this reaction is
oxygen.
DIVISIONS OF TREES
Coniferous Trees
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Softwood
Bears needles
Evergreens
Bears cones to
reproduce
Deciduous Trees
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Hardwood
Bears leaves
Lose their leaves
in winter
Bears fruits and
nuts to reproduce
CONIFEROUS TREES
(SOFTWOOD)
Lodgepole Pine
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Pale-yellow
sapwood is soft.
Heartwood is deep
yellow to reddishbrown.
Resinous.
CONIFEROUS TREES
(SOFTWOOD)
White Pine
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Straight grain.
Pale-yellow to
pale-brown in
colour.
Fine resin-duct
marks.
CONIFEROUS TREES
(SOFTWOOD)
Douglas Fir
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One of the
strongest
softwoods.
Straight grain.
Reddish-brown
timber.
Pronounced grain.
CONIFEROUS TREES
(SOFTWOOD)
Yellow Spruce
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Non-resinous.
Creamy-white
wood.
Slightly pink
heartwood.
CONIFEROUS TREES
(SOFTWOOD)
Western Red Cedar
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Soft aromatic
timber.
Reddish-brown in
colour.
Resistant to
mildew and
rotting.
CONIFEROUS TREES
(SOFTWOOD)
Yellow Cedar
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Pale-yellow even
textured wood.
Fine straight
grain.
CLASSIFICATIONS OF
HARDWOODS
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Ring-porous: clearly
defined pores along
the growth ring,
usually two to three
high.
Diffuse-porous: have
pores distributed
relatively evenly
throughout the growth
ring.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Red Oak
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Ring-porous.
Straight grained.
Pinkish-red in
colour.
$4.50 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
White Oak
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Ring-porous.
Straight grained.
Medium coarse
texture.
Whiter wood than
red oak.
$6.50 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
White Ash
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Ring-porous.
Course but generally
straight grained
wood.
White sapwood.
Pale-brown
heartwood.
$5.50 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Red Alder
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Diffuse-porous.
One of the softest
hardwoods.
Can dent with finger
nail.
Pale-yellow to
reddish-brown
colour.
$3.75 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Western Maple
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Diffuse-porous.
Softer hardwood.
Straight grain.
Light creamybrown colour.
$3.50 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Eastern Rock Maple
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Diffuse-porous.
Very hard & heavy
hardwood.
White sapwood.
Straight grain.
$6.50 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Bird’s Eye Maple
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Diffuse-porous.
Very hard & heavy
hardwood.
White sapwood.
Has a lot of eyes
all over the wood.
$11.50 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
White Birch
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Diffuse-porous
Fine straight grained
wood.
Creamy-white
sapwood.
Pale-brown
heartwood.
$4.75 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
American Black Cherry
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Diffuse-porous
Hard straight grained
wood.
Heartwood is reddishbrown to deep red.
Brown flecks and some
gum pockets.
Looks similar to Western
Maple.
$5.75 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Black Walnut
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Diffuse-porous.
Softer hardwood.
Usually straight
grained, but can be
wavy.
Rich dark brown to
purplish-black.
$6.50 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Philippine Mahogany
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Diffuse-porous.
Very open grained
wood.
Rough texture.
Light brown colour.
$6.75 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Honduras Mahogany
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Diffuse-porous.
Medium textured
wood.
Straight grained.
Heartwood is reddishbrown to deep red
colour.
$9.65 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Purpleheart
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Diffuse-porous.
Uniform fine to
medium texture
wood.
Grain direction
changes without
warning.
Very hard.
Attractive purple
colour.
$7.50 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Orange Padauk
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Diffuse-porous.
Very hard and
heavy wood.
Rich red to purplebrown colour with
red streaks.
$10.75 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Bubinga
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Diffuse-porous.
Straight or
interlocked and
irregular grain.
Red-brown in colour,
with purple veining.
$12.75 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Wenge
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Diffuse-porous.
Very coarse textured
wood.
Light brown with dark
purple veins.
Very hard and heavy
hardwood.
$14.75 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Zebrawood
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Diffuse-porous.
Coarse textured
wood.
White wood with dark
brown vein lines.
Grain direction
changes without
warning.
$17.50 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Cocobolo
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Diffuse-porous.
Hard, heavy, tough
wood with irregular
grain.
Attractive colour,
with purple to yellow,
with black markings.
$22.75 per bdft.
DECIDUOUS TREES
(HARDWOOD)
Ebony
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Diffuse-porous.
Hard, dense, and
heavy wood.
Fine even texture.
Straight, irregular or
wavy grain.
Dark brown to black
colour.
$92.00 per bdft.
MAN-MADE BOARDS
PLYWOOD BOARDS
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Decorative
plywood.
Three-ply board.
Multi-ply.
Hardwood
plywood.
Fir core plywood.
PARTICLE BOARDS
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Single-layer
chipboard.
Three-layer
chipboard.
Melamine
chipboard.
Oriented-strand
board.
Flakeboard.
FIBREBOARDS
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High-density (HM)
board.
Low-density (LM)
board.
Medium-density
fibreboard (MDF).
Oak-veneered MDF
board.
Standard hardboard.
Tempered hardboard.
Embossed hardboard.
Decorative-faced
hardboard.
Perforated hardboard.
HARDWOOD PLYWOOD VS.
SOLID HARDWOOD
PRO’S
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Does not warp like
solid lumber will.
Cut the size you
want. No need to
glue up panels.
Cheaper than solid
woods.
Uses less trees to
make hardwood
plywood, than using
solid lumber.
CON’S
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Have to glue solid
lumber on the end
grain to hide the core
of the plywood.
Exceptable to dents
and scratches,
exposing the core of
the plywood.
Appearance not as
nice as solid lumber.
THE END!
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