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An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology- Chapter 1

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An Introduction to
Anatomy and
Physiology- Chapter 1
1
A. All living things perform the same basic
functions.
1. Responsiveness- Organisms respond to
changes in their immediate environment, this
is called irritability.
2. Growth- Organisms grow larger, increasing
in size through an increase in the size or
number of their cells.
2
3. Reproduction- Organisms must
reproduce to pass on their genetic
information.
4. Movement- Organisms are capable
of movement of food, blood or other
materials inside the body, also moving
in the environment.
3
5. Metabolism- Organisms rely on complex
chemical reactions to provide the energy for
responsiveness
4
B. Biology is the study of life and
anatomy and physiology is the study of
the human body anatomy and how it
works.
5
C. The science of anatomy and Physiology
1. Anatomy is the study of internal and
external structure and the physical
relationships between both parts.
2. Physiology is the study of how living
organisms perform their vital functions.
6
D. Anatomy
1. Anatomy can be divided into
microscopic or macroscopic (gross) anatomy.
2. Microscopic anatomy deals with
structures that cannot be seen without
magnification.
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3. Microscopic anatomy can be
subdivided into specialties.
a. Cytology- analyzes the internal
structure of individual cells.
b. Histology- examines tissues and
organs.
8
4. Gross anatomy, or macroscopic anatomy
studies features visible to the naked eye.
a. Surface anatomy- refers to the study of
general form and superficial markings.
b. Regional anatomy – considers all of the
superficial and internal features in a specific region of
the body; such as head, neck or trunk.
c. Systemic anatomy considers the structures of
major organ systems; example- circulatory system.
9
E. Physiology
1. Physiology examines the function of
anatomical structures; it considers the
physical and chemical processes responsible.
a. Human physiology is the study of the
functions of the human body.
10
b. Cell physiology is the study of
the functions of living cells.
c. Special physiology is the study of
the physiology of specific organs.
11
d. System physiology considers all
aspects of the function of specific organ
systems.
e. Pathology studies the effects of
disease on organ or system functions.
12
II. Levels of organization
A. Chemical or Molecular level- Atoms
1. Cellular – red blood cell
2. Tissue- arter
3. Organ- heart
4. Organ system- circulatory system
5. Organism level – human
6. Each level of organization depends on the
others.
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B. An introduction to Organ Systems
1. See figure 1-2
14
C. Homeostasis and System Integration
1. Homeostasis (homeo= unchanging;
stasis= standing) keeping a stable
environment. (Example body temp)
2. Homeostatic regulation refers to the
adjustments that are met to keep
homeostasis. (Example when to hot body will
seat to cool down.)
15
C. Homeostatic regulation usually involves 3 things.
a. Receptor- that is sensitive to a particular
environmental change or stimulus.
b. A control center, or integration center, which
receives and processes the information from the
receptor.
c. An effector- responds to the commands of the
control center and whose activity opposes or
enhances the stimulus.
16
D. Negative Feedback
1. The method of homeostatic regulation
is called negative feedback because the
effector that is activated by the control center
opposes or eliminates the stimulus.
2. Most homeostatic mechanisms in the
body involve negative feedback. See figure
1.3
17
E. Positive Feedback
1. In positive feedback the initial
stimulus produces a response that
reinforces the stimulus. See figure 1.4
18
F. Homeostasis and Disease
1. When homeostatic regulation fails, organ
systems begin to malfunction and the
individual experiences the symptoms of
illness or disease.
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III. The language of Anatomy
A. Surface Anatomy
1. Standard anatomical illustrations
are in anatomical position, with the
hands at the sides and the palms facing
up.
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21
2. A person lying down in the
anatomical position is said to be supine.
3. A person facing up is said to be
prone.
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B. Anatomical Regions
1. Know figure 1.5, 4.6 and 1.7.
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C. Sectional Anatomy
1. Any slice through a threedimensional object can be described
with reference to three sectional planes.
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a. Transverse lanelines at right angels
dividing the body into
superior and inferior
sections. A cut in this
plane is called
transverse and a
horizontal section.
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b. Frontal plane or
coronal plane
parallels the long
axis of the body.
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c. Sagittal plane also
parallels the long axis
of the body, but it
extends from front to
back.
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D. Body Cavities
1. Two body cavities form during
embryonic development- the dorsal body
and ventral body cavity.
28
a. The dorsal body
cavity is a fluid-filled
space whose limits
are established by
the cranium, the
bones of the skull
that surround the
brain.
29
b. As the
development
proceeds, internal
organs grow and
change and lead to
subdivision of the
ventral cavity.
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The End
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