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The Regional Anatomy of the Upper limb

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The Regional
Anatomy
of the Upper limb
Section 1 Introduction
в… . Boundaries and Divisions
In response to the demand for flexibility of the upper limb.
в�… The long bones of upper limb are of slender ones and
more lighter than that of lower limb.
в�… The capsules of joints are loose and lack of strong
ligament.
Division:
The shoulderпјЌпјЌaxilla, scapular region, pectoral region.
The arm пјЌпјЌ пјЌanterior region, posterior region.
The elbow пјЌпјЌ пјЌ
The forarm пјЌпјЌ anterior region, posterior region.
The hand пјЌпјЌ пјЌpalm, dorsum, fingers or digits.
в…Ў. The Surface Anatomy
в… ) Surface Landmarks
1. The shoulder
(1) The acromion
(2) The coracoid process
(3) The anterior and posterior axillary folds
2. The arm
(1) The biceps brachii
(2) The carrying angle
(3) The deltoid tuberosity
3. The elbow
(1) The medial and lateral epicondyes of humerus
(2) The olecranon
4. The hand
(1) The wrist creases
(2) The flexor tendons
(3) The anatomical snuff box
(4) The styloid processes of the ulna and radius
Section 2 The superficial structures
of upper limb
в… .The skin
The thick in palm;
The thin in other parts.
в…Ў.The superficial fascia
в… ) The superficial veins
1. The cephalic vein
2. The basilic vein
3. The median cubital vein
в…Ў) The cutaneous nerves
The anterior surface:
1. The supraclavicular nerve
2. The superior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve
3. The inferior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve
4. The medial brachial cutaneous nerve
5. The intercostobrachial nerve
6. The lateral anterbrachial cutaneous nerve
7. The medial anterbrachial cutaneous nerve
8. The superficial branch of radial nerve
9. The median nerve
10. The superficial branch of ulnar nerve
Section 3 The deep structures
of upper limb
в… . The deep fascia
The bicipital aponeurosis
The flexor (extensor) retinaculum
The intermuscular septum
The neurovascular sheath
The osseofibrous sheath
(osteofascial compartment)
в…Ў. The muscles
в… ) The pectoral region
1. The extrinsic muscles
The pectoral major,
The subclavius, the pectoral minor,
The serratus anterior.
2. The intrinsic muscles
The intercostales externi
(anterior intercostal membrane),
The intercostales interni
(posterior intercostal membrane),
The intercostales intimus
пѓ’) The shoulder region
The deltoid, the supraspinatus, the infraspinatus,
the tere minor, the tere major, the subscapularis.
пѓ“ ) The arm (brachium) region
1. The anterior group
The biceps brachii, the coracobrachialis,
the brachialis.
2. The posterior group
The triceps brachii.
пѓ”) The forarm (antebrachium) region
1. The anterior group
1) The superficial layer (6)
The brachioradialis, the pronator tere,
The flexor carpi radialis, the palmaris longus,
The flexor digitorum superficialis,
The flexor carpi ulnaris.
2) The deep layer (3)
The flexor pollicis longus,
The flexor digitorum profundus,
The pronator quadratus.
14
пѓ“. . The vessels and nerve
1. The arteries (main trunk)
axillary a. пЃ№ brachial a. пЃ№
radial a.
Superficial palmar arch
common palmar digitial a. пЃ№
deep palmar arch proper
palmar digitial a.
ulnar a.
2. The veins (main trunk)
Plantar v. arch
пЃ№ dorsal v. of foot пЃ№ anterior tibial v.
пЃ№ lateral plantar v. пЃ№ posterior tibial v.
medial plantar v.
popliteal v. пЃ№ femoral v. пЃ№ external iliac v.
пѓ’. The axilla
пЃ® It is a pyramidal region;
пЃ® between the upper part of the chest wall
and the medial side of the arm.
пЃ® the axillary fossa or armpit:
a concave fossa of skin under the shoulder joint.
пЃ® the axillary cavity:
Deep to the armpit there is a pyramidal space.
The axilla possesses a apex, a base, 4 walls.
The axillary cavity contains vessels, nerves,
lymph nodes and a lot of adipose tissue.
пѓ‘) Boundaries of the axilla
1. The apex
пЃ® It is directed upwards towards the root of the neck;
пЃ® corresponds to the interval among the outer border of
the first rib,the superior border of the scapula and the
posterior surface of the clavicle.
пЃ® the passage of the vessels and nerves
between neck and the upper limb.
2. The base
пЃ® is directed downwards;
пЃ® is broad at the chest but narrow and pointed
at the arm;
пЃ® is formed by the skin and a thick layer of fascia
(axillary fascia);
пЃ® the special large sweat glands are abundant in the skin
of armpit, which have special odour
(called bromhidrosis).
3. The anterior wall
пЃ® is formed by the pectoralis major, pectoralis minor and
clavipectoral fascia;
4. The posterior wall
пЃ® consists of the subscapularis superiorly
and the tere major with the latissimus dorsi iferiorly.
пЃ® The quadrabgular space:
--- lateral;
--- is formed by the subscapularis , the tere major
and the long head of triceps.
--- transmits the axillary nerve
and the posterior humeral circumflex vessels.
пЃ® The triangular space:
--- medial;
--- is formed by the subscapularis , the tere major
and the long head of triceps.
5. The medial wall
пЃ® is formed by the first four ribs with their
corresponding intercostal muscles and
the upper part of the serratus anterior.
6. The lateral wall
пЃ® is a narrow space
where the anterior and posterior walls converge.
пЃ® is formed by the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus,
the two heads of biceps and the coracobrachialis.
пѓ’) Contents of the axilla
пЃ® The axillary vessels;
пЃ® The infraclavicular part of the brachial plexus
with its branches;
пЃ® The lateral branches of the intercostal nerves;
пЃ® The large number of lymph nodes;
пЃ® The quantity of fat and loose areolar tissue.
1. The axillary artery
пЃ® It extends from the outer border of the first rib
to the lower border of the tere major.
пЃ® The three parts by means of the pectoralis minor.
(1) The first part
пЃ® In front, is covered by the clavipectoral fascia;
пЃ® Behind, related to the long thoracic n.
and the medial cord of the brachial plexus;
пЃ® On the medial side, related to the axillary v.
and the apical lymph nodes.
пЃ® The branch--The superior thoracic a.
supplies the anterior part of first two intercostal spaces.
(2) The second part
пЃ® lies deep to the pectoralis minor;
пЃ® behind, related to the subscapularis;
пЃ® laterally, posteriorly, medially, related to the lateral cord,
posterioe cord and medial cord respectively;
пЃ® The branch--The thoracoacromial a.
To pierces clavipectoral fascia and divides into 3 branches
to supply the pectorals, deltoid and acromion.
The lateral thoracic a.--To follow the lateral border of the pectoralis minor
to the side of the chest;
To supply the serratus anterior and the pectoral m.
In the female, it is large, gives lateral mammmary branches.
(3) The third part
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
пЃ®
Its lower part is covered by the skin and fascia only;
It is easy to be exposed clinically;
Behind, related to the radial and axillary nerves;
On its lateral side, musculocutaneous n. and coracobrachialis m.
On its medial side, medial antebrachial n. and the ulnar n.
The branch--The thoracodoral a.
The subscapular a.
The circumflex scapular a.
The anterior humeral circumflex scapular a.
The posterior circumflex scapular a.
2. The axillary vein
пЃ® From the lower border of the tere major
as the continuation of the basilic v.
пЃ® To is anteromedial to the axillary a.
пЃ® To receive the tributaries which accompany
the arteries.
3. The infraclavicular part of brachial plexus
The branched of the cords of brachial plexus
Cords
Lateral
(C 5~7)
Medial
(C8,T1)
Main branches
Other branches
Musculocutaneous n.
Lateral pectoral n.
Lateral root of median n.
Medial root of median n. Medial pectoral n.
Ulnar n.
Medial brachial cutaneous n.
Medial antebrachial
cutaneous n.
Posterior Axillary n.
Subscapular n.
Thoracodorsal n.
(C5~7,T1) Radial n.
4. The axillary lymph nodes
пЃ® 20~30 in number;
пЃ® 5 groups which lie along the roots of the vessels of axilla
(1) The lateral lymph nodes (lateral group)
пЃ® 4 ~ 6 in number;
пЃ® To lie medical and posterior to the distal part of
axillary vein;
пЃ® To receive the lymph from the whole upper limb
except for the part which lymph vessels accompany
the cephalic vein;
пЃ® To drain into the centre group and partly into the
inferior deep lateral cervical lymph nodes directly.
(2) The pectoral lymph nodes (anterior group)
пЃ® 4 ~ 5 in number;
пЃ® To lie along lower border of the pectoral minor in the
relation to the lateral thoracic vessels;
пЃ® To receive the lymph from the skin and muscles of the
anterior and lateral walls of the body above the level of
the umbilicus and central and lateral parts of the
mammary gland;
пЃ® To drain into the central an apical lymph nodes.
(3) The subscapular lymph nodes (posterior group)
пЃ® 6 ~ 7 in number;
пЃ® To lie along the lower margin of the posterior wall of
the axlla and the subscapular vessels;
пЃ® To receive the lymph from the skin and muscles of the
lower part of the back of the neck and dorsal aspect of
the trunk as low as the iliac crest;
пЃ® To drain into the central group.
(4) The central lymph nodes (central group)
пЃ® 3 ~ 4 in number;
пЃ® To embed in the fat of the axilla;
пЃ® To receive the afferent from all the preceding lymph
nodes;
пЃ® To drain into the apical lymph nodes
(5) The apical lymph nodes (apical group)
пЃ® 6 ~ 12 in number;
пЃ® To situate partly posterior to the upper portion of the
pectoralis minor and partly under the clavipectoral
fascia which is along first part of the axillary vein;
пЃ® To receive the lymph from the upper part of the
mammary gland and the efferents of all the other
axillary lymph nodes;
пЃ® The afferents of these nodes unite to form the
subclavian trunk.
пѓ“ . The humeromuscular tunnel
пЃ® It is formed by three heads of triceps brachii
and the sulcus for radial nerve of humerus.
пЃ® It extends downwards from the medial to the
lateral side of the back of middle part of the
humerus;
пЃ® It transmits the radial nerve and the deep
brachial vessels.
в…Ј. The cubital fossa
пЃ® It is a triangular depression
at the bend of the elbow.
пЃ® The doundaries---laterally--- the brachioradialis;
Medially---the pronator teres;
Speriorly--- the base
An imaginary line between the two humeral epicondyles.
пЃ® The contents---- from the lateral to medial sides
radial n. , lateral antebrachial cutaneous n. ,
tendon of biceps brachii, terminal part of brachial a. and vein,
median n.
few deep cubital lymph nodes
which lie at the bifurcation of the artery.
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