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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1 Lecture
HUMAN ANATOMY
Fifth Edition
Chapter 1
An Introduction to Anatomy
Frederic Martini
Michael Timmons
Robert Tallitsch
Copyright В© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Introduction
• All specific functions are performed
by specific structures.
• Structure, therefore, determines
function.
Microscopic Anatomy
• Microscopic anatomy: structures that
can not be seen without
magnification.
– limited by the equipment used.
• Light microscope
• Electron microscope
• Cytology
• Histology
Microscopic Anatomy
Figure 1.1 The Study of Anatomy at Different Scales
Gross Anatomy
 Gross anatomy (macroscopic anatomy) is the
study of structures visible to the unaided eye.
– Surface anatomy: the general form, or
morphology, and superficial anatomical
markings.
– Regional anatomy: all structures in a specific
area of the body, whether they are superficial
or deep.
– Systemic anatomy: the study of anatomy
one organ system at a time.
Other Perspectives on Anatomy
• Developmental anatomy: structural changes
over time
• Embryology: first two months of
development
• Comparative anatomy: considers different
types of animals
• Clinical anatomy: pathological changes
during illness
Other Perspectives on Anatomy
• Radiographic anatomy: anatomical
structures as they are visualized by
noninvasive imaging procedures
• Surgical anatomy: anatomical landmarks
important to surgical procedures
Levels of Organization
• Cells are the smallest living units of the
levels of organization.
• Tissues are many cells and some
surrounding material.
• Organs are combinations of tissues.
• Organs combine to form organ systems.
• The human is composed of 11 organ
systems.
Levels of Organization
Figure 1.4 Levels of Organization
An Introduction to Organ Systems
 Responsiveness (irritability): a change activity based
upon a stimulus.
 Adaptability : long-term responsiveness.
 Growth: the increase in size of an organism.
 Differentiation: becoming specialized to perform
particular functions.
 Reproduction: production of new generations of the
same organism.
 Movement: ability to change the position of something.
An Introduction to Organ Systems
 Metabolism: all of the chemical reactions in the body.
– Anabolism is the bonding of chemicals together.
– Catabolism is the breaking of chemical bonds.
 Absorption: process of bringing chemicals into the body.
 Respiration: absorption, transport, and use of oxygen by
cells.
 Excretion: removal of wastes.
 Digestion: processes of catabolism that makes nutrients
small enough to be absorbed.
An Introduction to Organ Systems
Copyright В© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
An Introduction to Organ Systems
Copyright В© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
The Integumentary & Skeletal Systems
The Muscular & Nervous Systems
Endocrine & Cardiovascular Systems
Figure 1.6e The Organ Systems of the Body
The Lymphatic & Respiratory Systems
Figure 1.6g The Organ Systems of the Body
The Digestive & Urinary Systems
Figure 1.6i The Organ Systems of the Body
Male & Female Reproductive Systems
Figure 1.6k The Organ Systems of the Body
The Female Reproductive System
Figure 1.6l The Organ Systems of the Body
The Language of Anatomy
 Superficial Anatomy—anatomical landmarks and
correct directional terms help in understanding the
underlying structures.
– Anatomical landmarks
 Anatomical position is standing upright, arms at sides,
palms facing forward (little fingers by the thigh), feet
flat on the floor, face straight ahead.
 Supine is lying down with the face up.
 Prone is lying down with the face down.
The Language of Anatomy
Copyright В© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Anatomical Regions
Figure 1.8 Anatomical Landmarks
Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions
Figure 1.9a Abdominopelvic Quadrants
Figure 1.9b Abdominopelvic Regions
The Language of Anatomy
Figure 1.9b Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions
Copyright В© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
The Language of Anatomy
Figure 1.9c Abdominopelvic Quadrants and Regions
Copyright В© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
The Language of Anatomy
Copyright В© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Anatomical Directions
Figure 1.10 Directional References
The Language of Anatomy
Copyright В© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
The Language of Anatomy
 Sectional Anatomy
 A way to illustrate relationships between parts of threedimensional objects
 The development of electronic imaging techniques allows
us to see inside the living body without surgery
– Planes and sections
– Body cavities
Copyright В© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Sectional Anatomy
Figure 1.11 Planes of Section
The Language of Anatomy
Figure 1.12
Sectional Planes and Visualization
Copyright В© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
Body Cavities
 Organs of the respiratory, cardiovascular,
digestive, urinary, and reproductive
systems are housed in the ventral body
cavity.
1. The diaphragm separates the ventral body
cavity.
 Ventral body cavity: protected and
lubricated by a two-layer membrane system
called serous membranes.
Body Cavities
Body Cavities
Body Cavities
[Insert fig 1.13]
Figure 1.14 The Ventral Body Cavity
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