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The Educational Role of the Library in a
Digital Environment
Part I: Library Reference Resources
when Digital
Michael Buckland NORSLIS Visiting Professor
Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative and
School of Information, University of California, Berkeley
SALT, Uppsala, October 2, 2008
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
1
A report on work by several people: Aitao Chen, Fredric
Gey, Ray Larson, Barry Pateman, Vivien Petras, Ryan
Shaw, and others.
Work supported by two U.S. federal government
agencies: The Institute of Museum and Library
Services and the National Endowment for the
Humanities.
Three projects:
Support for the Learner
Biography
Irish Studies
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
ecai.org/imls2004
ecai.org/imls2006
ecai.org/neh2007
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Some ideas about learning. . . .
1. Understanding requires knowing the context
2. Best place to read is inside library with reference works
3. Using Internet resources should be like using a library
reference collection ? and as easy and as reliable
4. Design: Find the context of any museum object,
document, or performance: What is related to it in what it
is, where it came from, when it originated, and who is
associated with it?
5. WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, and WHO (?4W?) as a structure
6. Make better use of existing descriptive metadata
7. Re-design reference library for online environment
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
3
In a paper environment, reading inside a library is the best
place to learn. It is well designed to explain the context!
Text
Library resources
with a interesting
details.
Who was she?
Where is that?
What is this?
What else was
happening?
Encyclopedias
Atlases, place name
Biographical dictionaries
Bibliographies
Library catalog
Statistical series
etc., etc. . . . .
Oct 2, 2008
Reader
SALT1, Uppsala
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Context and relationships: Ireland and Irish Studies ? Project diagram.
Any word, name, document, or event
Connect it with its context ? and other resources.
Facet
Vocabulary
Displays
WHAT
Thesaurus
e.g. LCSH
WHERE
Gazetteer
WHEN
Period directory Timeline
WHO
Biograph. dict. Personal
e.g. Who?s Who relations
Oct 2, 2008
Crossreferences
Any catalog: Archives,
Libraries, Museums, TV,
Publishers
Map
SALT1, Uppsala
Any resource:
Audio, Images, Texts,
Numeric data, Objects,
Virtual reality, Webpages
5
The ?9 to 5? problem
The reference library and reference library is open from
9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. (09:00 ? 17:00)
Students are writing papers at home on laptops from
9:00 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. (21:00 ? 05:00)
What is wrong with this situation?
What can we librarians do about it?
Comment: The online environment is not visible.
One cannot see important structures.
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
6
WHAT
Subject headings
Cross-references in
& between vocabularies
Within a vocabulary
Kung fu movies SEE Martial Arts films [LCSH]
FORMERLY Hand-to-hand fighting, oriental, in motion pictures
Between Vocabularies
Economics = 330 [Dewey Decimal Classification]
180/280 [US Patent classification] = 3711 [Standard Industrial
Classification] = TL 205 [LC Classif.] = Automobile
Extending a search from one source to another ordinary means a
change in vocabulary. Internet: Many sources and vocabularies!
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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WHERE
Place name list
Map
St. Petersburg = Санкт Петербург = Saint-P?tersbourg,
Cluj (Romania, Roumania, Rumania) = Klausenburg = Kolozsvar.
Ctesiphon (Ancient site)
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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WHAT is WHERE? Catalog + Place name list + map.
Search for books on Folklore, then geographical sort.
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
9
WHERE is WHAT? Draw box on map around South America.
Place name list names capital cities (?PPLC?) for search in catalog.
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
10
WHEN
Named Time Periods
Timeline
People speak of time by naming periods and events:
- In reign of Charlemagne?
- During the Weimar Republic?
- After the Vietnam War?
- When I was a student?
This is culturally situated and resembles place names.
So a ?Named Time Period Directory? like a place name list:
Place name list (= ?gazetteer?)
Place name ? Type of place ? Lat. & Long. ? when
Named period directory
Period name ? Type of period ? Chron. Time -- where
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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WHEN?
Search: What happened in IRELAND in 1690s?
Time Period Directory
records in Google Earth.
Zoom to Ireland and
1690s. Icon for siege of
Limerick, 1690. Click link
for library search.
Catalog records list
books and show context.
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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WHEN
Time Period Directory
Timeline
Browse
Search LC Catalog
Search Wikipedia
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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WHO Biographical Dictionary Complex relationships
Life events metadata
WHAT: Actions
prisoner
WHERE: Places
Holstein
WHEN: Times
1261-1262
Better is to have external links to the best resources!
WHO: People
Margaret Sambiria
Current project: Context finding for biographical texts.
Example: Electronic search engine pioneer.
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
14
Comment: Facet genres include other facets
Library subject headings
Topic ? Geographic subdivision ? Chronological subdivision
Place name gazetteer
Place name ? Type ? Spatial markers (Lat & long) ? When
Time Period Directory
Period name ? Type ? Time markers (Calendar) ? Where
Biographical Dictionary
Person ? Activity type ? Time ? Where ? Who else
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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A ?4W? search interface
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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Search term recommender service for LC Subject Headings
Entry Vocabulary
Index suggests correct
LCSH with different
spelling
Buttons for searchable
resources & local catalogs
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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Potentially related
people
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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Potentially related
periods
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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Mostly in India 16th18th century
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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Find out more about
this area.
Oct 2, 2008
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Different Browsing Options!
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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Zooming to
South Asia
Select
Set limits in
time frame
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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Interface generates menu page
General information about
the country of India?
Berkeley Natural History Museums
Wikipedia
BBC
Ethnologue
CIA Factbook
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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ECAI Cultural Atlases:
presenting history in its geographical
& chronological contexts
Oct 2, 2008
SALT1, Uppsala
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