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Two-Way Bilingual Immersion - California Department of Education

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Two-Way Bilingual Immersion
Improving Educational Opportunities for
All Students
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Program History
• Began in 1960s in Dade County Florida
with the influx of Cuban refugees
• Private bilingual schools formed to develop
bilingualism for Cuban refugees
• English speaking families began enrolling
their children
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Program History
• Two-Way Programs began in California
between 1980-1986
– Public school programs established in
•
•
•
•
•
San Francisco
San Jose
Windsor
Santa Monica-Malibu
Oakland
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Nationally and in
California
• In the nation
– 329 programs in 29 states + D.C.
• (Center for Applied Linguistics 2006)
• In California
– 197 programs
– 89 districts
– 5 languages
• (California Department of Education Language
Policy Office 2006)
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Two-Way Bilingual
Immersion
Definition
• A program that develops bilingualism and
biliteracy in English and a second language
by integrating English learners (Els) with
English speakers (proficient in English)
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Definition
• Target language(other that English) is used for
minimum of 50% of the time
• English is used for minimum of 10% of time
• Instruction in and through both languages
• Periods in which only one language is used at a
time
• Combines maintenance bilingual education
model with foreign language immersion model
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Program Goals
• Bilingualism:
• High levels of proficiency in English and a second
language
• Biliteracy:
• High levels of academic proficiency in English and
a second language
• Multicultural competence:
• Understanding of different cultures and
development of high self esteem
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Two-Way Bilingual Immersion
Programs in California:
Compliance With Proposition 227
• Alternative Education Programs:
Alternative School Waivers may be granted
pursuant to Ed. Code section 58505
– Visit Department website at www.cde.ca.gov. click on
Educational Options Office
• Charter Schools:
– Visit Department website at www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cs/
– Parental Waivers
Parental Waivers
• Parents of Els must yearly sign a waiver
request
• English learners who have never been
enrolled in California schools must receive
30 calendar days of sheltered English
instruction prior to being placed in twoway bilingual immersion programs.
Program Models
• Different bilingual programs have different
academic and linguistic outcomes
• Different models needed because of varying
student populations and community
conditions
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Bilingual Program Models
for English Learners
• Transitional bilingual education-TBE (early exit)
– Goal: monolingualism (English proficiency)
• Generally viewed as remedial program which replaces home
language with English
• Literacy instruction begins in L1 and replaced by Englishusually within 3 years
• Maintenance or developmental bilingual education
(late exit)
– Goal: bilingualism
• Maintenance and full development of first language while
adding English proficiency
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Bilingual Program Models
for English Speakers
• Foreign Language Immersion
– Goal: bilingualism
• Uses child’s second language for minimally
50% of the day.
• Based on Canadian immersion models.
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Program Models for
English Learners and
English Speakers
• Two-Way Bilingual Immersion (TWBI)
• Sometimes referred to as dual language immersion
programs
– Combines features of maintenance bilingual
programs for English learners and foreign
language immersion for English speakers
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Rationale for Two-Way
Bilingual Immersion
Programs
• Additive bilingual environment for all students
– Second language best acquired by language minority students (Els)
when first language established
– Second language best acquired by language majority students
(Eng. speakers) through immersion in second language
• Knowledge learned through one language facilitates
acquisition of second language knowledge
• Students will benefit from cognitive advantages with
development of bilingualism and biliteracy
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Essential Characteristics
for Success
• Strong leadership and administrative
support
• Qualified instructional personnel
• Program duration of 5-7 years
• Balance in classroom composition
• Focus on academic achievement
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Essential Characteristics
for Success
• Adequate exposure to second language
• Positive and reciprocal school instructional
climate
• Monolingual delivery
• Promotion of the benefits of bilingualism
• Strong home/school collaboration
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Strong Leadership and
Administrative Support
• Support required from
– school Board and District administration
• Support and knowledge of program from
– site administration
– resource personnel
• Provisions for
– ongoing professional development
– planning time for teachers
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Qualified Instructional
Personnel
• Knowledge of
– academic content and curriculum
– theories and strategies for development of
biliteracy
– TWBI model
• Native like proficiency in languages of
instruction
• Culturally competent
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Program Duration of 5-7
Years
• Extended amounts of time are needed to
fully develop second language academic
proficiency (minimum of 5-7 years)
• Parents agree to a six year commitment of
students in program
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Balance in Classroom
Composition
• Establish classroom with linguistic equity or
balance
– Ideally 50% English learners and 50% English
speakers
• Classroom composition should never fall
below one-third of either linguistic group
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Focus on Academic
Achievement
• Language taught within context of
academic content
• Curriculum based on state/district standards
• Development of high level language skills
in both languages
• Adequate instructional materials that
represent ethnic and religious diversity
– both instructional and library
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Adequate Exposure to
Second Language
• Create opportunities for second language
use through
– formal and informal language structures
– academic, social and technical language
– teacher-directed instruction and student
collaborative group activities
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
• Includes
Positive and Reciprocal
School Instructional
Climate
– high expectations for all students
– school that values languages and culture
– opportunities for collaborative groupings for
facilitation of student interaction and language
use
– faculty committed to equity and trained in
multicultural understanding
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Monolingual Delivery
• Separates languages for instructional
purposes
• Establishes motivation for student language
use
• Teacher adheres to language of instruction
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Promotion of the Benefits
of Bilingualism
• Increase the status of minority language through
– Providing presentations from bilingual professionals
– Encouraging use of language among parents and school
staff
– Including study of the language and culture of the
students
– Encouraging use of target language outside of
classroom environment
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Strong Home/school
Collaboration
• Provide parent education opportunities in:
– two-way bilingual design and benefits
– second language acquisition and biliteracy
theory
– English and target language classes
– school curriculum
– helping their children with homework
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Strong Home/School
Collaboration
• Visit experienced TWBI programs
• Invite parents of TWBI students to talk with
prospective parents
• Provide access to resource library with
bilingual articles, books, tapes, and
materials available for checkout
• Encourage opportunities to assist in child’s
classroom in parents home language
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
TWBI Program Models
• 90:10
• 50:50
• Other program models
– 70:30
• Secondary program models
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
TWBI Program Model 90:10
10%
50%
30%
50%
50%
90%
Grades K-1
70%
Grades 2-3
These three images are pie charts which represent the amount of time students in various
grades are taught in English and the target language. The first one is divided in two and
represents K-1 students of which 90% of instruction is taught in in the target language and
10% of instruction is taught in English. The second chart represents grades 2-3. Seventy
percent of instruction is done in the target language and 30% is in English. The third chart
represents 4-6. Instruction time is split 50/50 for the two languages.
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Grades 4-6
English
Target Language
TWBI Program Model 50:50
For All Grades
Target
Language
50%
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
English
50%
This image is a pie chart that is divided into two
sections which shows one portion representing 50% of
instructional time is spent in the Target Language and the
second portion representing 50% of instructional time is
spent in English for all grades.
TWBI Secondary Program
Model
• Generally a continuation of elementary TWBI program
• Minimum of 2-3 classes in target language per semester
• Increased focus on formal language structures
• Teacher and material resources used to determine target
language courses
• Adequate selection of materials in target language
(instructional and library)
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Research Results
Lindholm-Leary (2000)
• Bilingualism
– Both models, 90:10 and 50:50, promoted bilingual
proficiency (oral)
– 90:10 models developed higher levels of bilingual
proficiency
English Language Proficiency- both English and
Spanish speakers benefited equally from 90:10 and
50:50 models
Spanish Language Proficiency- More likely to occur in
90:10 models
All students, regardless of student characteristics were
proficient in English and Spanish
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on
Dual Language Education
NCBE
Research Results
Lindholm-Leary (2000)
• Biliteracy
– Both groups of students were successful in tests of
reading and writing in both languages
– By the time English speakers began English reading in
third grade, they performed at grade level and at least as
high as English speakers instructed only in English
– Higher levels of bilingual proficiency associated with
higher levels of reading achievement
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on
Dual Language Education
NCBE
Research Results
Lindholm-Leary (2000)
• Academic Content
– Both groups of students scored on par with
their peers in mathematics achievement
– Math achievement was highly related across
two languages
– Social studies and science achievement were
average to high for English and Spanish
speakers
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on
Dual Language Education
NCBE
Research Results
Lindholm-Leary (2000)
• Multicultural Competencies and Self
Esteem
–
–
–
–
High levels of self-esteem
High academic competence and motivation
Positive multicultural competencies
Enjoyment in studying through two languages
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Biliteracy for a Global Society: An Idea Book on
Dual Language Education
NCBE
National Study of
Programs for English
Learners
Collier and Thomas
• In a national study
– conducted in five school districts throughout
the United States
– including over 210,000 student records
– reviewing different program types for language
minority students
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students’
Long-Term Academic Achievement CREDE
Program Types Reviewed
• TWBI programs
– 90:10
– 50:50
• Late-Exit bilingual
programs
– 90:10 and 50:50 oneway developmental
programs
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
• Early-Exit / TBE +
content ESL
• Early-Exit / TBE +
traditional ESL
• ESL taught through
content
• ESL pullout
A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students’
Long-Term Academic Achievement CREDE
Research Results
Collier and Thomas
• Programs must be
–
–
–
–
effective,
well implemented,
not segregated
and sustained long enough (5-6 years)
in order for the achievement gap between ELs
and native English speakers to be closed
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students’
Long-Term Academic Achievement CREDE
Research Results
Collier and Thomas
• Program effectiveness findings show
– Enrichment one-way (bilingual maintenance program)
and two-way bilingual immersion programs are the
only programs that assist students to fully reach the 50th
percentile in both L1 and L2 in all subjects and to
maintain that high level of achievement
– Two-way programs have the fewest high school
dropouts
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
A National Study of School Effectiveness for Language Minority Students’
Long-Term Academic Achievement CREDE
English Learners Long Term K-12
Achievement on Standardized Tests
in English Reading Compared
Across Seven Program Models
Two-Way BE
70
Late-Exit BE +
Content ESL
60
NCE
50
Early-Exit BE +
Content ESL
40
Early-Exit BE +
Trad. ESL
30
20
ESL thru Academic
Content
10
ESL Pullout-Trad.
0
K
2
4
6
8
Grade
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
10
12
This chart represents
a study conducted by
Thomas and Collier
comparing the
effectiveness of
programs for English
learners. It shows that
two way bilingual
immersion programs
and late exit bilingual
programs with content
ESL were the only
programs where ELs
reached the 50% in
English reading and
maintained it through
12th grade.
Native English
Speakers
Thomas & Collier, 2000
Benefits of Bilingualism
• Enhanced academic and linguistic competence in two
languages:
• Development of skills in collaboration & cooperation
• Appreciation of other cultures and languages
• Cognitive advantages
• Increased job opportunities
• Expanded travel experiences
• Lower high school drop out rates (EL)
• Higher interest in attending colleges and universities (EL)
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Selected Resources
• Christian, D. (1994). Two-way bilingual education:
Students learning through two languages.
(Educational Practice Rep. No. 12). Santa Cruz, CA
and Washington, DC: National Center for
Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language
Learning.
• Christian, D., Montone, C., Lindholm, K., & Carranza, I.
(1997). Profiles in two-way
immersion
education. McHenry, IL: Center for Applied
Linguistics and Delta Systems Co., Inc.
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Selected Resources
• California Department of Education. (2002). California
two-way bilingual immersion programs directory.
Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education
• Thomas, W. & Collier, V. (1998). School effectiveness for
language minority students. Alexandria, VA: National
Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education
• Thomas, W. & Collier, V A National Study of School
Effectiveness for Language Minority Students’ Long-Term
Academic Achievement. Center for Research on Education
, Diversity & Excellence, Santa Cruz, CA
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
Selected Resources
• Cloud, N., Genesee, F., & Hamayan, E. (2000). Dual
language instruction: A handbook for enriched
education. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.
• Lindholm-Leary, K. (2000). Biliteracy for a global
society: An idea book on dual language education.
Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for
Bilingual Education.
• Lindholm-Leary, K. (2001). Dual language education.
Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
California Department of Education
Language Policy and Leadership Office
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