What is a Revolution? Revolution вЂ�A drastic, sudden substitution of one group in charge of a territorial political entity by another group hitherto not running that government.вЂ™ (Crane Brinton,The Anatomy of Revolution, p. 4) Crane BrintonвЂ™s Anatomy of a Revolution вЂў He borrowed his terms from pathology. вЂў Compares a revolution to a disease. FEVER MODEL OF REVOLUTION Crisis Stage Symptomatic Stage Convalescence Incubation Stage Much like an illness, revolutions can also be studied in stages This stage in an illness is when the cause of the sickness first comes into contact with the individual, infecting them, but not yet causing any symptoms to present themselves. What would this stage be like in a revolution? Crisis Stage Symptomatic Stage Convalescence Incubation Stage In a revolution, this stage would involve the political, social, intellectual, or economic causes. In some cases, these causes could fester for many years before showing themselves in the form of actual revolutionary action. Sicknessпѓ affects person in observable waysпѓ Temp may rise; cough might present ; individual might become weak & queasy. What would this stage be like in a revolution? Crisis Stage Symptomatic Stage Convalescence Incubation Stage 1st part to involve direct action resulting from social, political, intellectual, or economic causes of incubation stage. Might involve the publication of works calling for a change, street level riots by common people, or more direct attempts at changing society. Critical stageпѓ 2 things can happenпѓ individual either breaks the fever after a heightened stage of illness OR gets progressively worse & does not recover. What would this stage be like in a revolution? Crisis Stage Symptomatic Stage Convalescence Incubation Stage Make or break part of struggle. May involve conflict where sides for & against revolution compete. (could take the form of debate or full-scale war) Successful revolutions survive this stage- those that donвЂ™t are failed rebellions. Recovery from illness. Individual might be weakened from experience, but he or she will eventually emerge healthy & w/ new knowledge & experience that might prevent illness from occurring again. What would this stage be like in a revolution? Crisis Stage Symptomatic Stage Convalescence Incubation Stage Recovery from the extreme disruptions of crisis stage. Political, social, intellectual, or economic causes of revolution must be addressed in some way, though not necessarily to satisfaction of all revolutionaries. Conditions Present Before a Revolution Takes Place 1) People from all social classes are discontented. 2) People feel restless & held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, & the economy or govвЂ™t 3) People are hopeful about the future, but are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for 4) People are beginning to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, & there is bitterness b/t social classes 5) Social classes closest to each other are the most hostile Conditions Present Before a Revolution Takes Place 6) Scholars & thinkers give up on the way their society operates 7) GovвЂ™t does not respond to needs of its society 8) Leaders of govвЂ™t & ruling class begin to doubt themselvesпѓ some join w/ opposition groups 9) GovвЂ™t is unable to get enough support from any group to save itself. 10) GovвЂ™t cannot organize its finances correctly & is either going bankrupt or trying to tax heavily & unjustly. The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take 1) Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end 2) Unsuccessful govвЂ™t attempts to suppress revolutionaries 3) Revolutionaries gain power & seem united 4) Once in power, revolutionaries begin to quarrel among themselves, & unity begins to dissolves 5) Moderates gain the leadership but fail to satisfy those who insist on further changes The Course that Revolutions Seem to Take 6) Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control 7) Strong man emerges & assumes great power 8) Extremists try to create a вЂњheaven-on-earthвЂќ by introducing their whole program & punishing all of their opponents 9) Period of terror or extreme violence occurs 10) Moderate groups regain power. THE REVOLUTION IS OVER!!!! The French Revolution Application of the Fever Model Causes - Incubation вЂў Social Inequality - three estates вЂ“ Three estates вЂ“ First Estate (upper clergy) - 1% of population, taxed peasants вЂ“ Second Estate (nobles) - 2-3% of population, paid no taxes, taxed peasants вЂ“ Third Estate (Bourgeoisie, peasants, workers) - paid up to 1/2 of income in taxes Causes - Incubation вЂў Enlightenment Ideas/American Rev. вЂ“ Belief all men should have liberal freedoms вЂ“ Right and just to remove unjust govвЂ™t вЂ“ Equality for all вЂ“ United States Dec. of Independence and Constitution Causes - Incubation вЂў King Louis XVI вЂ“ Weak leader вЂ“ Preferred personal interests, delegated authority вЂ“ Incapable of decisive action Causes - Incubation вЂў Economic Crisis вЂ“ French economy bankrupt вЂ“ Wars, Louis XVI lifestyle вЂ“ Nobles not taxed вЂ“ Crop failures вЂ“ Debt - 1/2 budget goes to interest вЂ“ Bourgeoisie begin questioning King Moderate Stage - Symptoms вЂў Estates General called, Third Estate demands reform - resisted by others Moderate Stage - Symptoms вЂў National Assembly declared (June 20, 1789) Moderate Stage - Symptoms вЂў Bastille stormed (July 14, 1789) in response to king mobilizing Swiss troops Moderate Stage - Symptoms вЂў Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (Aug., 1789) вЂ“ Influenced by America вЂ“ Equality of all men, sovereignty resided in the people, and individual rights to libery, prosperity, and security вЂў March of the Women (Oct., 1789) вЂ“ Food protests turn into march to Versailles вЂ“ King forced to move to Paris Moderate Stage - Symptoms вЂў Reforms on National Assembly вЂ“ вЂњLiberty, equality, fraternityвЂќ - motto вЂ“ Dismantled feudal system вЂ“ Seized Church lands вЂ“ Abolished estates вЂ“ Creates Constitution of 1791 - limits power of king (constitutional monarchy) вЂ“ Men of property could vote Radical Stage - Crisis вЂў Prussian and Austrian invasion of France вЂў French Republic established - King dethroned, the Convention set up вЂў Large scale draft вЂў King tried and executed Radical Stage - Crisis вЂў Robespierre / Jacobians take control of the Convention вЂў Committee of Public Safety oversees the Reign of Terror (40,000 people executed, 300,000 arrested) вЂў Tried to eliminate influence of the church Moderate - Convalescence вЂў Convention arrests Robespierre - executes him вЂў The Directory takes over вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ вЂ“ Committee of five conservative men Tries to find middle ground Military successes outside of France Domestically, still many problems вЂў Napoleon stages coup, imposes new constitution - declares himself first consul вЂў What do you think is the reaction of the French?