вход по аккаунту


The Arab Spring - Prosser Career Academy, CA

код для вставкиСкачать
The Arab Spring
What is the �Arab Spring?’
• Began in the winter of 2010/spring of
2011 and is still happening now!
• Pro-democracy protesters across
North Africa and the Middle East rose
up against the dictatorial regimes
that had ruled their home countries
for years.
How did the �Arab Spring’ begin?
• Began in Tunisia when a 26 year old street vendor, Mohamed
Bouazizi, set himself on fire after a policewoman confiscated his
unlicensed vegetable cart and its goods on Dec. 17, 2010. It
wasn’t the first time it had happened!
Countries the �Arab Spring’ has impacted
Saudi Arabia
• Leader: President Zine alAbidine Ben Ali, ruled for 24
years (now in exile)
• Country where the Arab
Spring began!
• In October of 2011, the
moderate Islamist Ennahda
party won the country’s first
democratic elections.
President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali resigned in January of 2011 after weeks of
protests against poverty, injustice, the greed of the political elite, and
He was forced from power after nearly a quarter of a century and flew to exile in
Saudi Arabia.
On June 20, 2011, the former leader and his wife were sentenced in absentia to
35 years in jail by a court in Tunis. Some of his former ministers have also faced
Around 300 people died during the unrest, which led to the toppling of Mr. Ben
In October, the moderate Islamist Ennahda party won the country's first
democratic elections. Some 80 new parties officially registered for the polls with
Ennahda winning more than 41% of the vote to secure 90 seats in the 217member parliament.
One key reform enacted even before the election was the dissolution of the
notorious political police and state security apparatus, which were blamed for
many human rights abuses.
• Leader: King Abdullah II, in power
since 1999 .
• Protesters have been demanding
better employment prospects and
cuts in food and fuel costs.
• Replaced his prime minister, and
promised to give up his power and
appoint prime ministers and
cabinet members, though he has
not given a specific date.
Unrest has simmered since January of 2011 but while protesters have clashed with the
security forces, and one man was killed in the capital Amman in March, the country has
seen nothing like the deadly violence in Syria and Egypt.
Protesters have been demanding electoral reforms that would see the prime minister
directly elected and more powers granted to parliament.
King Abdullah II has replaced his prime minister with Marouf al-Bakhit, a former general
and ambassador to Israel, together with a new cabinet.
In a speech to mark the 12th anniversary of his rule, the king also promised to give up
his power to appoint prime ministers and their cabinets, though he has not given a
precise indication as to when this will take place.
A powerful Islamist opposition group, the Islamic Action Front, has called for the
dissolution of parliament and has criticized the king's efforts to initiate reform.
Jordan is a small country with few natural resources, but it has played a pivotal role in
the power balance in the Middle East, as one of only two Arab nations to have made
peace with Israel.
• Leader: President Hosni
Mubarak, in power for 30 years.
• Left office after 18 days of
protests in the capital of Cairo.
• He has been put on trial
(accused of ordering the killings
of protesters). He has been
suffering from poor health.
The military has been running the country since President Hosni Mubarak, in
power for three decades, resigned on February 11, 2011.
As time passed since Mr. Mubarak's departure, dissatisfaction grew with the pace
of change and the refusal of the military to give a firm date for presidential
Violence in late 2011 prompted a statement from Egypt's military leader, Field
Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, in which he promised presidential elections by
the end of June 2012.
Much of the unrest in Egypt was driven by poverty, rising prices, social exclusion
and anger at corruption and personal enrichment among the political elite, as
well as a demographic bulge of young people unable to find work.
At least 846 people were killed during the uprising that toppled Mr. Mubarak and
more than 6,400 people were injured, according to an Egyptian government factfinding panel. Those figures do not include those killed or injured in the more
recent unrest.
Egypt - Today
• The army, led by Field Marshal
Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, is
overseeing Egypt’s transition to
• The new parliamentary
assembly met for the first time
after elections in January of
• Protests and clashes between
the military and
Egyptian protestors over a new
constitution, presidential
elections, and military
oversight have continued to
plague Egypt.
• Leader: Colonel Muammar
Gaddafi was in power for 40 years.
He was ousted when rebels took
the capital of Tripoli in August of
• After an 8 month civil war and
with NATO’s help, Gaddafi was
captured and killed (Oct. 31).
• The National Transitional Council
(NTC) which led the revolt is now
recognized by the UN as Libya’s
legitimate ruling body.
• Libya's uprising began in mid-February when, inspired by the revolutions in
Tunisia and Egypt, hundreds came out onto the streets of several towns
and cities demanding the end of Col Gaddafi's rule.
• The authorities responded with violence, opening fire on protesters, as the
rallies grew and spread across the country. The revolt soon evolved into an
armed conflict pitting forces loyal to Col Gaddafi - based in Tripoli in the
west - against rebel forces based in the eastern port city of Benghazi.
• In March, the UN Security Council passed a resolution which authorized "all
necessary measures" - except troops on the ground - to protect civilians.
Coalition operations were largely confined to air attacks, initially aimed at
imposing a no-fly zone and later widened to include government targets.
Following six months of fighting, rebel forces took Tripoli in late August,
after gaining pockets of territory in the west. Thousands of people poured
out of their homes in celebration at the ousting of Col Gaddafi.
• After four decades in power, Col Gaddafi and his family went
on the run. On 31 October the former leader was captured
and killed on the outskirts of Sirte.
• Three weeks later, his son Saif al-Islam Gaddafi and Libya's
intelligence chief, Abdullah al-Sanussi, were captured trying
to flee the country and now face trial in Libya.
• Several thousand people have been killed and many more
have been injured in the conflict and Amnesty International
has reported extensive human rights abuses by both sides.
The UN believes at least 335,000 people have fled Libya
since the beginning of the conflict, including at least 200,000
foreign nationals.
• Leader: Bashar al-Assad, in power since
2000 (inherited power from his father).
• Since March of 2011, at least 5,000
Syrians have been killed according to the
• Protestors are calling for political
freedom, an end to corruption, action
on poverty, and an end to the
emergency law of 1963.
• Syrian govt. claims the protestors are
�terrorists and armed gangs’.
• The U.S. and EU have imposed sanctions
on Syria, but the conflict has not ended.
• The wave of popular unrest sweeping the Arab world came late to
Syria but since the first protests in March 2011 in the city of Deraa,
at least 5,000 Syrians have been killed, according to the UN.
• With a leadership determined to cling to power, and a revolt that
shows no sign of easing, correspondents say any resolution looks a
distant prospect.
• Mr. Assad has promised reform since 2000, when he inherited
power from his father Hafez, but little has changed.
• Events in Syria, one of Israel's most bitter enemies and a strong
ally of Lebanon's Hezbollah militants, could have a major impact
on the wider Middle East.
• Leader = President Abdelaziz
Bouteflika, in power since 1999.
• Strikes and protests has pressured
Algeria to change its constitution
to allow private radio and
television stations to exist for the
first time in 40 years.
• President Bouteflika has promised
constitutional reforms and has
lifted the country’s state of
emergency laws.
• President Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been under pressure to change the
constitution and limit presidential terms after protests that began in January.
• Attempts by protesters to march through the capital, Algiers, have been broken
up by huge numbers of riot police. The trigger for the unrest appears to have
been mainly economic - in particular sharp increases in the price of food.
• On 16 April, Mr. Bouteflika promised to amend the constitution to "strengthen
• The country's state of emergency was lifted in February after 19 years.
• In September, President Bouteflika announced sweeping media reforms which
will allow private radio and television stations to exist for the first time in
almost four decades.
• Leader: King Mohammed VI, in power
since 1999.
• Morocco is facing economic crisis, but
its monarchy has a lot of public
• Protesters want a symbolic monarchy
and a limit on the King’s authority.
• King Mohammed announced a series
of constitutional reforms and can no
longer appoint the prime minister.
• In June, King Mohammed VI announced a series of constitutional
reforms in response to February's nationwide protests, but
unrest has continued.
• The reforms were passed in a referendum on 1 July, with 98%
voting in favor, according to the ruling authorities. The changes
reduced the king's wide-ranging powers. Where previously he
had a free hand in selecting a prime minister, under the new
constitution he has to nominate someone from the largest party
in parliament.
• Many protesters want a full constitutional monarchy, with more
powers transferred from the king than the new constitution
• Leaders: President Mahmoud
Ahmadinejad (since 2005), &
Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali
Khamenei (since 1989)
• Unrest over 2009 presidential
election led to thousands of
protesters in the streets in Feb.
of 2011.
• Security forces cracked down,
and will not allow large
• Thousands of people rallied in the capital Tehran in solidarity with prodemocracy protests across the Middle East. They wanted a recount and
another election for the 2009 presidential election which they claim was
• Security forces cracked down on the protest. Two people were killed and
many more injured.
• Rallies held in the days following, as well as on February 20, were also
suppressed. The authorities have succeeded in preventing any more
large demonstrations from taking place.
• All forms of Iranian media were banned from covering the protests,
though the demonstrators were still able to release information by
utilizing social media like Facebook and Twitter.
• Leader: King Hamad, in power
since 1999.
• Tiny island, closely allied with
• The monarchy retaliated harshly
to the protests and was accused
of torturing and executing
protestors and using excessive
Predominantly Shia Muslim protesters have been demanding action to tackle
economic hardship, the lack of political freedom and employment discrimination in
favor of the ruling Sunni Muslim minority.
For weeks, the demonstrators occupied the center of the capital, Manama. King
Hamad clamped down hard on March 16, clearing the protesters' camp in a show of
force condemned by the UN as "shocking".
He imposed a state of emergency and used hundreds of soldiers from Saudi Arabia
and the United Arab Emirates to beef up security. Security measures remain in place
to stop large gatherings and the authorities have continued to use force to break up
small protests.
Forty-seven doctors and nurses who treated some of the wounded protesters have
gone on trial, accused of disseminating false information about the casualties and
attempting to topple the monarchy.
In November an independent commission published a report stating that "excessive
force" had been used when the government crushed the protests. The report stated
that detainees had been blindfolded, whipped, kicked, given electric shocks and
threatened with rape to extract confessions. King Hamad expressed "dismay" at the
findings and promised reforms to prevent abuses by the security forces.
Saudi Arabia
• Leader: King Abdullah Al Saud, in
power since 2005.
• One of the wealthiest and most
conservative countries in Middle
East, home of the most sacred sights
in Islam.
• Opposition movements are banned.
• The King supports the other Middle
Eastern leaders and supplies them
with soldiers to put down protesters.
Saudi Arabia
The challenge for the rulers of one of the region's wealthiest and most conservative
nations has been to address pressure for reform.
Small protests have occurred over labor rights and against anti-Shia discrimination.
Protestors have called for prisoners held without charge or trial to be released.Women
have organized demanding electoral rights and have organized a right-to-drive
The kingdom has seen no mass pro-democracy protests and opposition movements are
banned. However, there have been some small demonstrations by the Shia Muslim
minority in solidarity with protesters in Bahrain.
King Abdullah, 87, is regarded in the Arab world as a supporter of wider Arab interests. If
the Saudis have played a role in the "Arab Spring" at all, it has perhaps been to support
fellow governments under pressure: Saudi soldiers were sent to Bahrain to help shore
up the government and it was to Saudi Arabia that Tunisia's ousted leader, Zine alAbidine Ben Ali, fled in January. The Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh flew to Saudi
Arabia for medical treatment after being seriously injured in a rocket attack on his
compound in June.
• Leader: President Ali Abdullah Saleh (in
power for 33 years).
• Poorest Middle Eastern country.
• Protesters wanted President Saleh to step
down and hold elections, and were against
unemployment, economic conditions, and
• Saleh responded violently with military
troops attacking protesters.
• Eventually he signed a deal for immunity
(cannot be put in jail) and agreed to step
• Beginning in February 2011, hundreds of people were killed
in violence between security forces and demonstrators
calling for an end to the 33-year rule of President Ali
Abdullah Saleh.
• In September, a new wave of violence broke out when about
50 protesters were killed and some 600 injured in a two-day
crackdown in Sanaa. Witnesses say government snipers were
firing on people from rooftops, while military aircraft shelled
positions held by the protest-supporting troops.
• On October 21 the UN Security Council called on the
president to sign a deal brokered by Gulf states, under which
he would step down in return for immunity from
prosecution. The decision to offer him immunity was to avoid
civil war.
• The deal eventually cleared the path for elections to
take place, but many protesters are angry that Mr.
Saleh will be not face justice for the suppression of
the protests.
• After stalling for months, Mr. Saleh finally signed an
agreement on November 23 to begin the transfer of
power to his deputy.
• In January 2012, he left the country, travelling to the
US for a short-term private medical visit. In February
2012, a presidential election was held in Yemen.
• Leader: Sultan Qaboos bin Said,
in power since 1970.
• Oil rich country with close ties to
the U.S.
• Protesters want more jobs to be
created, stabilized food prices,
and greater power given to the
semi-elected Consultative
Council that checks corruption in
the government.
• Unprecedented protests erupted at the beginning of
March, with the deaths of several people.
• Following the mass protests Oman's ruler, Sultan
Qaboos, promised to give some legislative and
regulatory powers to the Consultative Council. The
extent of the new powers it will have is not yet clear.
• Oman has been ruled by Sultan Qaboos since he seized
power from his father, Sultan Said bin Taimur, in 1970.
The oil-rich country is a popular tourist destination and a
long-standing ally of the US and UK.
What happens now?
• Many of these countries have to decide what types of
governments they want, now that their dictators
have been kicked out!
• Should they have a democracy or a theocracy?
• Many Islamic fundamentalists have gained
popularity in these countries and Western countries
are worried that secular democracies will be difficult
to maintain.
• Consider the similarities between the countries
where the �Arab Spring’ took place.
• What did most of the protesters want to
• What rights were they fighting for? Do you have
these rights?
Social Media
пѓ Protesters used
social media websites
like facebook and
twitter to organize
their movements and
spread their message!
The Role of Technology
in the Arab Spring
• ↑ BBC video about social media and the Arab
The Power of the Protester
• TIME Magazine
named the �Protester’
their 2011 Person of
the Year.
Размер файла
3 247 Кб
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа