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# Ch_10

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```Chapter 10 Energy
Chapter Goal: To introduce the concept of energy
and the basic energy model.
Slide 10-2
Chapter 10 Preview
Slide 10-3
Chapter 10 Preview
Slide 10-4
Chapter 10 Preview
Slide 10-6
Chapter 10 Preview
Slide 10-7
Kinetic Energy K
п‚§ Kinetic energy is the
energy of motion.
п‚§ All moving objects
have kinetic energy.
п‚§ The more massive an
object or the faster it
moves, the larger its
kinetic energy.
Slide 10-20
Potential Energy U
п‚§ Potential energy is
stored energy
associated with an
objectвЂ™s position.
п‚§ The roller coasterвЂ™s
gravitational potential
energy depends on its
height above the
ground.
Slide 10-21
Thermal Energy Eth
п‚§ Thermal energy is the
sum of the microscopic
kinetic and potential
energies of all the atoms
and bonds that make up
the object.
п‚§ An object has more
thermal energy when
hot than when cold.
Slide 10-22
The Basic Energy Model
п‚§ Within a system, energy can
be transformed from one
type to another.
п‚§ The total energy of the
system is not changed by
these transformations.
п‚§ This is the law of
conservation of energy.
п‚§ Energy can also be transferred
from one system to another.
п‚§ The mechanical transfer of energy to a system via
forces is called work.
Slide 10-23
Kinetic Energy and Gravitational Potential
Energy
п‚§ The figure shows a before-and-after
representation of an object in
free fall.
п‚§ One of the kinematics equations
from Chapter 2, with ay = пЂ­g, is:
п‚§ Rearranging:
п‚§ Multiplying both sides by ВЅm:
Slide 10-24
Kinetic Energy and Gravitational Potential
Energy
Define kinetic energy as an energy of motion:
Define gravitational potential energy as an
energy of position:
The sum K + Ug is not changed when an object is in
free fall. Its initial and final values are equal:
Slide 10-25
Kinetic Energy and Gravitational Potential
Energy
Slide 10-26
QuickCheck 10.1
A child is on a playground swing,
motionless at the highest
point of his arc. What energy
transformation takes place as
he swings back down to the
lowest point of his motion?
A. K п‚® Ug
B. Ug п‚® K
C. Eth п‚® K
D. Ug п‚® Eth
E. K п‚® Eth
Slide 10-27
QuickCheck 10.1
A child is on a playground swing,
motionless at the highest
point of his arc. What energy
transformation takes place as
he swings back down to the
lowest point of his motion?
A. K п‚® Ug
B. Ug п‚® K
C. Eth п‚® K
D. Ug п‚® Eth
E. K п‚® Eth
Slide 10-27
Example 10.1 Launching a Pebble
Slide 10-31
Example 10.1 Launching a Pebble
Slide 10-32
Example 10.1 Launching a Pebble
Slide 10-33
Energy Bar Charts
п‚§ A pebble is tossed up into the air.
п‚§ The simple bar charts below show how the sum of K + Ug
remains constant as the pebble rises and then falls.
Slide 10-34
QuickCheck 10.4
Rank in order, from largest to
smallest, the gravitational
potential energies of the balls.
A. 1 > 2 = 4 > 3
B. 1 > 2 > 3 > 4
C. 3 > 2 > 4 > 1
D. 3 > 2 = 4 > 1
Slide 10-38
QuickCheck 10.4
Rank in order, from largest to
smallest, the gravitational
potential energies of the balls.
A. 1 > 2 = 4 > 3
B. 1 > 2 > 3 > 4
C. 3 > 2 > 4 > 1
D. 3 > 2 = 4 > 1
Slide 10-39
The Zero of Potential Energy
п‚§ Amber and Bill use
coordinate systems with
different origins to
determine the potential
energy of a rock.
п‚§ No matter where the rock
is, AmberвЂ™s value of Ug
will be equal to BillвЂ™s
value plus 9.8 J.
п‚§ If the rock moves, both will calculate exactly the same
value for пЃ„Ug.
п‚§ In problems, only пЃ„Ug has physical significance, not the
value of Ug itself.
Slide 10-40
Example 10.2 The Speed of a Falling Rock
ASSESS The figure below shows energy bar charts for Amber and Bill.
despite their disagreement over the value of Ug, Amber and Bill arrive at the
same value for vf and their Kf bars are the same height. You can place the
origin of your coordinate system, and thus the вЂњzero of potential energy,вЂќ
wherever you choose and be assured of getting the correct answer to a
problem.
Slide 10-44
Gravitational Potential Energy on a Frictionless
Surface
п‚§ The total mechanical energy
for a particle moving along
any frictionless smooth
surface is conserved,
regardless of the shape of
the surface.
Slide 10-48
QuickCheck 10.5
Starting from rest, a marble
first rolls down a steeper hill,
then down a less steep hill of
the same height. For which is
it going faster at the bottom?
A.
Faster at the bottom of the steeper hill.
B.
Faster at the bottom of the less steep hill.
C.
Same speed at the bottom of both hills.
D.
CanвЂ™t say without knowing the mass of the marble.
Slide 10-49
QuickCheck 10.5
Starting from rest, a marble
first rolls down a steeper hill,
then down a less steep hill of
the same height. For which is
it going faster at the bottom?
A.
Faster at the bottom of the steeper hill.
B.
Faster at the bottom of the less steep hill.
C.
Same speed at the bottom of both hills.
D.
CanвЂ™t say without knowing the mass of the marble.
Slide 10-50
Example 10.3 The Speed of a Sled
Slide 10-53
Example 10.3 The Speed of a Sled
Slide 10-54
Example 10.3 The Speed of a Sled
Slide 10-55
QuickCheck 10.7
Three balls are thrown from
a cliff with the same speed
but at different angles.
Which ball has the greatest
speed just before it hits the
ground?
A.
Ball A.
B.
Ball B.
C.
Ball C.
D.
All balls have the same speed.
Slide 10-57
QuickCheck 10.7
Three balls are thrown from
a cliff with the same speed
but at different angles.
Which ball has the greatest
speed just before it hits the
ground?
A.
Ball A.
B.
Ball B.
C.
Ball C.
D.
All balls have the same speed.
Slide 10-58
Restoring Forces and HookeвЂ™s Law
п‚§ The figure shows how a
hanging mass stretches
a spring of equilibrium
length L0 to a new
length L.
п‚§ The mass hangs in static
equilibrium, so the upward
spring force balances the
downward gravity force.
Slide 10-61
Restoring Forces and HookeвЂ™s Law
п‚§ The figure shows measured
data for the restoring force
of a real spring.
п‚§ пЃ„s is the displacement
from equilibrium.
п‚§ The data fall along the
straight line:
п‚§ The proportionality constant k is called the spring
constant.
п‚§ The units of k are N/m.
Slide 10-62
HookeвЂ™s Law
п‚§ One end of a spring is
attached to a fixed wall.
п‚§ (Fsp)s is the force produced
by the free end of the spring.
п‚§ пЃ„s = s вЂ“ se is the
displacement from
equilibrium.
п‚§ The negative sign is the
mathematical indication of
a restoring force.
Slide 10-63
QuickCheck 10.9
The restoring force of three
springs is measured as they are
stretched. Which spring has the
largest spring constant?
Slide 10-64
QuickCheck 10.9
The restoring force of three
springs is measured as they are
stretched. Which spring has the
largest spring constant?
Steepest slope.
Takes lots of force for
a small displacement.
Slide 10-65
Example 10.5 Pull Until It Slips
Slide 10-66
Example 10.5 Pull Until It Slips
Slide 10-67
Example 10.5 Pull Until It Slips
Slide 10-68
Example 10.5 Pull Until It Slips
Slide 10-69
Example 10.5 Pull Until It Slips
Slide 10-70
Example 10.5 Pull Until It Slips
Slide 10-71
Elastic Potential Energy
п‚§ Springs and rubber bands
store potential energy that
can be transformed into
kinetic energy.
п‚§ The spring force is not
constant as an object
is pushed or pulled.
п‚§ The motion of the mass is not constant-acceleration
motion, and therefore we cannot use our old
kinematics equations.
п‚§ One way to analyze motion when spring force is
involved is to look at energy before and after some
motion.
Slide 10-73
Elastic Potential Energy
п‚§ The figure shows a beforeand-after situation in which
a spring launches a ball.
п‚§ Integrating the net force
from the spring, as given by
HookeвЂ™s Law, shows that:
п‚§ Here K = ВЅ mv2 is the kinetic
energy.
п‚§ We define a new quantity:
Slide 10-74
Elastic Potential Energy
п‚§ An object moving without friction on an ideal spring
obeys:
where
п‚§ Because пЃ„s is squared, Us is
positive for a spring that is
either stretched or compressed.
п‚§ In the figure, Us has a positive
value both before and after the
motion.
Slide 10-75
QuickCheck 10.10
A spring-loaded gun shoots a plastic ball with a launch
speed of 2.0 m/s. If the spring is compressed twice as
far, the ballвЂ™s launch speed will be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
1.0 m/s.
2.0 m/s.
2.8 m/s
4.0 m/s.
16.0 m/s.
Slide 10-76
QuickCheck 10.10
A spring-loaded gun shoots a plastic ball with a launch
speed of 2.0 m/s. If the spring is compressed twice as
far, the ballвЂ™s launch speed will be
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
1.0 m/s.
2.0 m/s.
2.8 m/s
4.0 m/s.
16.0 m/s.
Conservation of energy:
Double пЃ„x пѓћdouble v
Slide 10-77
Example 10.6 A Spring-Launched Plastic Ball
Slide 10-80
Example 10.6 A Spring-Launched Plastic Ball
Slide 10-81
Example 10.6 A Spring-Launched Plastic Ball
Slide 10-82
Example 10.6 A Spring-Launched Plastic Ball
Slide 10-83
Example 10.6 A Spring-Launched Plastic Ball
Slide 10-84
Energy Diagrams
п‚§ Potential energy is a function of position.
п‚§ Functions of position are easy to represent as graphs.
п‚§ A graph showing a systemвЂ™s potential energy and total
energy as a function of position is called an energy
diagram.
п‚§ Shown is the energy diagram
of a particle in free fall.
п‚§ Gravitational potential energy
is a straight line with slope
mg and zero y-intercept.
п‚§ Total energy is a horizontal
line, since mechanical
energy is conserved.
Slide 10-85
Energy Diagrams
п‚§ Shown is the energy
diagram of a mass on a
horizontal spring.
п‚§ The potential energy (PE)
is the parabola:
Us = ВЅk(x вЂ“ xe)2
п‚§ The PE curve is determined
by the spring constant; you
canвЂ™t change it.
п‚§ You can set the total energy (TE) to any height you
wish simply by stretching the spring to the proper
length at the beginning of the motion.
Slide 10-87
A Four-Frame Movie of a Mass Oscillating on a
Spring
Slide 10-88
Elastic Collisions
п‚§ During an inelastic collision of two objects, some of the
mechanical energy is dissipated inside the objects as
thermal energy.
п‚§ A collision in which mechanical energy is conserved is
called a perfectly elastic collision.
п‚§ Collisions between
two very hard objects,
such as two billiard
balls or two steel balls,
come close to being
perfectly elastic.
Slide 10-106
A Perfectly Elastic Collision
elastic collision of a ball of
mass m1 and initial velocity
(vix)1, with a ball of mass m2
initially at rest.
п‚§ The ballsвЂ™ velocities after the
collision are (vfx)1 and (vfx)2.
п‚§ Momentum is conserved in all isolated collisions.
п‚§ In a perfectly elastic collision in which potential energy is
not changing, the kinetic energy must also be conserved.
Slide 10-107
A Perfectly Elastic Collision
п‚§ Simultaneously solving
the conservation of
momentum equation and
the conservation of kinetic
energy equations allows
us to find the two unknown
final velocities.
п‚§ The result is:
Slide 10-108
A Perfectly Elastic Collision: Special Case 1
perfectly elastic collision of
a ball of mass m1 and initial
velocity (vix)1, with a ball of
mass m2 initially at rest.
п‚§ Case 1: m1 = m2.
п‚§ Equations 10.42 give vf1 = 0 and vf2 = vi1.
п‚§ The first ball stops and transfers all its momentum to
the second ball.
Slide 10-109
A Perfectly Elastic Collision: Special Case 2
elastic collision of a ball of
mass m1 and initial velocity
(vix)1, with a ball of mass m2
initially at rest.
п‚§ Case 2: m1 >> m2.
п‚§ Equations 10.42 give vf1 п‚» vi1 and vf2 п‚» 2vi1.
п‚§ The big first ball keeps going with about the same speed,
and the little second ball flies off with about twice the speed
of the first ball.
Slide 10-110
A Perfectly Elastic Collision: Special Case 3
elastic collision of a ball of
mass m1 and initial velocity
(vix)1, with a ball of mass m2
initially at rest.
п‚§ Case 3: m1 << m2.
п‚§ Equations 10.42 give vf1 в‰€ в€’vi1 and vf2 в‰€ 0.
п‚§ The little first rebounds with about the same speed,
and the big second ball hardly moves at all.
Slide 10-111
Perfectly Elastic Collisions: Using Reference
Frames
п‚§ Equations 10.42 assume ball 2 is at rest.
п‚§ What if you need to analyze a head-on collision when
both balls are moving before the collision?
п‚§ You could solve the simultaneous momentum and
energy equations, but there is an easier way.
Slide 10-112
Using Reference Frames: Quick Example
A 200 g ball moves to the right at 2.0 m/s. It has a
head-on, perfectly elastic collision with a 100 g ball that
is moving toward it at 3.0 m/s. What are the final
velocities of both balls?
Slide 10-113
Using Reference Frames: Quick Example
п‚§ Figure (a) shows the situation just before the collision
in the lab frame L.
п‚§ Figure (b) shows the situation just before the collision
in the frame M that is moving along with ball 2.
Slide 10-114
Using Reference Frames: Quick Example
п‚§ We can use Equations 10.42 to find the post-collision
velocities in the moving frame M:
п‚§ Transforming back to the lab frame L: