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Spring Wheat in 2008 - University of Wisconsin

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Spring Wheat in 2008
Shawn P. Conley and John Gaska
Soybean and Wheat Specialist
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Outline of Discussion Points
• Variety selection and key traits to consider
• Fertility management (Nitrogen)
• Management Timing
• Grading characteristics
Basis $2.00
Grading Characteristics
• Wheat Grades: #1 58.0 pound test weight
– Subclasses:
• Dark northern spring: (>75% dark, hard, vitreous)
• Northern spring: (25-74% dark, hard, vitreous)
• Red spring: (>25% dark, hard, vitreous)
• Protein: 14.0% (based on 12% moisture)
– #1 factor in determining value of your wheat
• Falling number: alpha-amylase activity
– 250 to 300 base value required for baking
Variety Selection
It’s easy, varieties are actually named
Variety Survey - 2007
FHB Ratings
Variety
Bigg Red
Glenn
Alsen
Faller
Freyr
Hat Trick
Banton
Briggs
Granger
Kelby
Oklee
RB07
Rush
Traverse
Ada
Fireball
Granite
Howard
Knudson
Steele-ND
Trooper
Ulen
Polaris
Oxen
Year of
Release
2004
2005
2000
2004
2007
2007
2002
2002
2004
2006
2003
2007
2006
2006
2006
2006
2002
2006
2001
2004
2004
2004
2003
1996
FHB
Rating
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
8
Variety
Leaf Rust
Source of
Rating
Resistance
Briggs
1
Lr34 + others
Faller
1
Lr21
Glenn
1
Lr21
Howard
1
Lr21
RB07
1
Lr21
Steele-ND
1
Lr21
Blade
2
Knudson
2
Banton
3
Granger
3
Kelby
3
Kuntz
3
Ada
4
Freyr
4
Hat Trick
4
Ulen
4
Vantage
4
Alsen
5
Bakker Gold
5
Cromwell
5
Fireball
5
Oklee
5
Rush
5
Samson
5
Traverse
5
Granite
6
Polaris
6
Trooper
6
FBC-Dylan
7
Hot Shot
7
Norwell
7
Oxen
7
Bigg Red
8
Marshall
8
Lr34, 2a, 10, and 13
Leaf Rust Ratings
Southern Locations
3 2 .5
3 0 .0
H o tsh o t
2 7 .5
P o la ris
2 5 .0
M a rsh a ll
Y ie ld L o sse s (b u /A )
2 2 .5
2 0 .0
O xe n
1 7 .5
N o rw e ll
1 5 .0
1 2 .5
V a n ta g e
ve
B aTkra
ke
r rse
G o ld
G ra n ite
1 0 .0
H o w a rd
F re yr
7 .5
R le
B 0n7n
G
Kn
Buladdso
en
G ra n g e r
5 .0
K e lb y
B a n to n
2 .5
F B C -D yla n
O lse
k lene
SA
a m so
n
F ire b a ll
H a tT rick
T ro o p e r
U le n
A da
F a lle r
B rig g s
S te e le -N D
B ig g R e d
C ro m w e ll
R u sh
K u n tz
0 .0
-2 .5
-5 .0
0
1
2
3
4
5
L e a f R u st R a tin g
6
7
8
9
Straw Strength
Variety
Plant Height Straw Strength
Bakker Gold
31
Very Strong
Granite
29
Very Strong
Polaris
31
Very Strong
Rush
29
Very Strong
Trooper
29
Very Strong
Vantage
29
Very Strong
Alsen
32
Strong
Banton
32
Strong
Fireball
29
Strong
Glenn
34
Strong
Hat Trick
30
Strong
Kelby
28
Strong
Marshall
30
Strong
Variety
Plant Height
Ada
31
Faller
32
Knudson
30
Oxen
31
RB07
30
Bigg Red
34
Briggs
32
FBC-Dylan
31
Freyr
32
Granger
35
Howard
32
Oklee
31
Steele-ND
33
Traverse
34
Ulen
32
Straw Strength
Medium Strong
Medium Strong
Medium Strong
Medium Strong
Medium Strong
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Scatter Plot - 2007
16.0
Fireball
Glenn
Protein
15.5
Alsen
15.0
Vantage
Rush
14.5
AdaOxen
Granite
RB07
Oklee
Banton
Steele-ND
Howard
Briggs
Blade Kelby
Freyr
Hat Trick
14.0
Granger
Faller
Knudson
Trooper
Traverse
13.5
Bakker Gold
Polaris
Bigg Red
13.0
Hot Shot
85
95
105
Grain Yield (% of mean)
115
Southern Average (2006-2007)
1 5 .7 5
F ire b a ll
1 5 .5 0
G le n n
1 5 .2 5
G ra in P ro te in (% )
1 5 .0 0
G ra n ite
A ls e n
RB07
S te e le -N D
O kK
leeelb y
H o w a rd
Rush
1 4 .7 5
U le n
B a n to n
B rig g s
G ra n g e r
1 4 .5 0
Ada
1 4 .2 5
O xen
F B C -D yla n
F re yr
H a t Tric k
Knudson
1 4 .0 0
F a lle r
Tro o p e r
1 3 .7 5
Tra ve rs e
1 3 .5 0
M a rs h a ll
B a k k e r G o ld
B ig g R e d
P o la ris
1 3 .2 5
1 3 .0 0
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
G ra in Y ie ld (% o f m e a n )
110
115
120
Picks
Variety
RB07
Pluses
Balanced
Minuses
Faller
Yield
Protein, Straw strength?
Howard
Balanced
Glenn
FHB, Quality
Yield, Threshability
Freyr
FHB
Straw strength
Steele-ND
Balanced
Straw strength
Granger
Yield
Straw strength
Briggs
Balanced
Straw strength
Knudson
Yield
Protein
Spring Wheat Grain Yield
Arlington, WI 2007
70
LSD = 5 bu/ac
65
*
60 59
57
*
57
55
57
58
*
60 60
*
*
Oxen
*
60
*
62
Steele
61
53
Briggs
Glen
Alsen
Mercury
Ulen
Oklee
Ada
Kuntz
Knudson
Kelby
45
Freyer
50 47
Exp SR
YIELD (bu/a)
65
65
Spring Wheat Grain Yield
Spooner Irrigated 2007
50
LSD = 5 bu/ac
44
42
*
38 39
40
35
37
*
34
38 *
36
34
31
30
35
40
*
30
30
Briggs
Oxen
Steele
Glen
Alsen
Mercury
Ulen
Oklee
Ada
Kuntz
Knudson
Kelby
20
Freyer
25
Exp SR
YIELD (bu/a)
45
Spring Wheat Grain Yield
Spooner Non-Irrigated 2007
35
LSD = 3 bu/ac
33
29
Briggs
Oxen
Oklee
Ada
Kuntz
Knudson
Kelby
Freyer
20
*
Steele
24
25
30
25
Glen
25
Alsen
25
26
Mercury
27 27
29
*
28
Ulen
30
30
29
Exp SR
YIELD (bu/a)
*
Spring Wheat Variety x Fungicide
Arlington, WI 2007
70
LSD
Fungicide = NS
Variety = 5.3
Var x Fung = NS
60
55
50
Overall
Briggs
Oxen
Steele
Glen
Alsen
Mercury
Ulen
Oklee
Ada
Kuntz
Knudson
Kelby
40
Freyer
45
Exp SR
YIELD (bu/a)
65
Seeding Operations
�This is not your grandfather’s drill’
Population
SDR= [(Desired Stand in Plants/Acre) / (1 - Expected Stand Loss)]
[(Seeds/Pound) x (Percentage Germination)]
Initial Stands:
Crop
Plants per acre
Plants per sq. ft.
Winter wheat
Spring wheat
Barley
Oats
(times 1 million)
1.0
1.30 – 1.35
1.25 – 1.30
1.25 – 1.30
23
30 – 32
28 – 30
28 – 30
Depth

Depth control critical component:
• You can not afford a delay in emergence.
• Increases problems with root rots.

Ideal seeding depth is 1” – 1.5”
Temperature
Minimum, optimum, and maximum growth temperatures for small grains.
Crop
Wheat
Barley
Oat
Growth Temperature
Minimum
Optimum
Maximum
------------------------ п‚°F -----------------------37-39
37-39
37-39
75-77
68-70
68-70
86-90
82-86
82-86
Q: What is the correct order to plant small grains?
Q: Has the drought in WI helped our spring wheat?
Fertility Management
Grain Yield vs Protein
120
1 4 .5
1 4 .0
1 3 .5
100
1 3 .0
1 2 .5
90
1 2 .0
G ra in P ro te in (% )
118
-1
G ra in Y ie ld (b u A )
110
80
1 1 .5
70
1 1 .0
0
40
80
120
160
-1
F e rtilize r N ra te s (lb s N A )
Sims and Rehm, 2003
Grain Yield versus NUE
60
0 .4 0
G ra in Y ie ld (b u A
-1
)
0 .3 5
50
45
0 .3 0
40
35
0 .2 5
F e rtilize r U s e E ffic ie n c y
55
30
25
0 .2 0
0
Sims and Rehm, 2003
30
60
90
120
F e rtilize r N a p p lie d (lb s . N A
-1
)
150
Protein: 14.4% @ 90 lbs N;
15.2% @ 120 lbs. N
Grain Protein versus NUE
0 .7 5
1 4 .5
G ra in P ro te in (% )
118
0 .6 5
1 3 .5
0 .6 0
1 3 .0
0 .5 5
1 2 .5
0 .5 0
0 .4 5
1 2 .0
0 .4 0
1 1 .5
0 .3 5
1 1 .0
0 .3 0
0
40
80
120
-1
Sims and Rehm, 2003
F e rtilize r N ra te s (lb s N A )
160
F e rtiliz e r N u s e e ffic ie n c y
0 .7 0
1 4 .0
Spring Wheat Response to N at Spooner, WI 2007
60
55
Yield (Bu/a)
50
45
40
35
Briggs
Knutson
30
25
20
0
20
40
60
N Rate (lbs N/a)
80
100
Fertility Management

Soil test.
• To get a reference point

Apply according to recommendation:
• Refer to Small Grains Field Guide
• Eastern MN and OM% >3.0: 70 lb N/A
• Western MN: Nrec=(YGx2.5) – STN – NPC (=40lb N/A for soybean)
• WI
• 60 lb N/a for 2.0 to 9.9% OM
• 90 lb/a for <2.0% OM

Split applications:
• Be aware that N can not be rate limiting at 5 leaf stage
• Splits only recommended for very sandy soils.
Management Stages
Optimizing Scouting Time

In HRSW:
• Fifteen distinct crop growth stages.
• Five of these are critical in HRSW:
•
•
•
•
•
2 leaf stage - stand count, weed ID)
4 to 5 leaf stage - weed ID, insects, and fungi
flag leaf emergence - insects, and fungi
heading to flowering - insects, and fungi
physiological maturity - pre-harvest management
Scouting Activities
Scouting Activities
Timing
Stage
Growth
Stage
(Zodaks)
Agronomic
Weeds
Insects
Diseases
2–Leaf Stage
12
Stand count
Scout for
weeds
-
-
4 – 5 Leaf
Stage
14-15
Estimate
yield (if
jointing has
started)
Scout for
weeds
Scout for
aphids &
grasshoppers
Scout for
leaf
diseases
(powdery
mildew)
Flag Leaf
Emergence
37
-
-
Scout for
aphids &
other insects
(armyworms)
Scout for
leaf
diseases
Anthesis
60
Estimate
yield
-
Scout for
OWBM
Evaluate
need for
FHB
treatment
Physiological
Maturity
90
-
Evaluate
need for preharvest
herbicide
program
-
-
Acknowledgements

Order:
• (800) 876-8636
• (701) 231-1882
• shop.extension.umn.edu

Jochum Wiersma
• Phone: (218) 281-8629
Email: wiers002@umn.edu
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